引用本文:刘 扬,孙丽莉,廖 红.养分管理对安溪茶园土壤肥力及茶叶品质的影响[J].土壤学报,2020,57(4):917-927. DOI:10.11766/trxb201904300148
LIU Yang,SUN Lili,LIAO Hong.Effects of Nutrient Management on Soil Fertility and Tea Quality in Anxi Tea Plantation[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,2020,57(4):917-927. DOI:10.11766/trxb201904300148
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养分管理对安溪茶园土壤肥力及茶叶品质的影响
刘 扬, 孙丽莉, 廖 红
福建农林大学资源与环境学院根系生物学研究中心
摘要:
安溪是铁观音的主产区,茶园养分管理滞后已成为该地区茶叶生产的瓶颈,本研究旨在为该地区茶园的养分管理提供科学依据。试验于2015年在安溪县采集了50个茶园的茶青与土壤样品,测定了土壤5项主要肥力指标和茶青中9种主要次生代谢物含量;并根据茶农氮肥用量调研数据,初步将茶园养分管理划分为:少量、中量和过度型等三种方式。限制性主坐标轴分析发现,此分类方式可解释34.4%(P<0.001)茶园土壤肥力参数的总体差异,说明此分类方式能反映出不同茶园养分管理的总体水平;并且,养分管理对表层土壤有效磷的影响最为显著。进一步分析表明,养分管理对茶青综合品质的影响可解释品质总差异的7.48%(P<0.001);大部分茶青次生代谢物在中量型管理下含量最高。说明养分管理影响安溪茶园土壤的肥力状况,施肥量过高或过低均不利于高品质茶叶的生产,该地区的建议施氮量约为200~400 kg·hm-2·a-1
关键词:  土壤肥力  茶青品质  次生代谢物  养分管理  茶园
基金项目:福建省自然科学基金项目(2017J01602)、农业部“茶树根系养分高效改良及应用创新团队”项目和国家自然科学基金项目(31701989)共同资助
Effects of Nutrient Management on Soil Fertility and Tea Quality in Anxi Tea Plantation
LIU Yang, SUN Lili, LIAO Hong
Root Biology Center, College of Resources and Environment, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University
Abstract:
【Objective】Tea is the most important non-alcoholic beverage crop in the world. To meet increasing demand of the market, tea production is intensified through nutrient management. Anxi County in China is one of the main regions producing famous oolong tea—Tieguanyin, where lagging nutrient management is the bottleneck of tea production. This study aims to provide a scientific basis for nutrient management in Anxi tea plantations, through comprehensive analysis of effects of nutrient management modes on plantation soil fertility and tea leaf quality. 【Method】 In 2015, tea and soil samples were collected from 50 representative tea plantations in the ten major tea production towns of Anxi County, including 150 fresh tea leaf samples, 50 surface soil samples (0-20 cm) and 46 profile soil samples (top: 0-20, mid: 20-40, sub: 40-60 cm). The soil samples were air-dried and ground for determination of soil pH, organic matter (OM), alkali nitrogen (AN), available phosphorus (AP) and available potassium (AK), the five indices set as soil fertility parameters in this study, and the tea leaf samples were analyzed on UPLC-MS (ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadruple mass spectrometry) for determination of contents of nine main tea-quality-related secondary metabolites. By N fertilization rate, the 50 tea plantations were tentatively divided into three groups: low, moderate and excess. 【Result】 Based on the division, restricted principal axis analysis shows that nutrient management significantly explained 34.4% of the overall differences in topsoil fertility between the tea plantations (P<0.001), which further confirmed that the classification by N fertilization rate could represent the comprehensive level of nutrient management of a tea garden. The tea plantations of the moderate group significantly differed from those of the low and excess groups in soil fertility in the top and mid soil layers, but did not so obviously in the sub soil layer. Nutrient management had the most significant effect on AP among the five soil fertility indices in the topsoil, which was followed by AK, AN and OM, and excess fertilization resulted in severe soil acidification. Further analysis shows that nutrient management significantly affected tea quality and explained 7.48% of the differences in the comprehensive tea quality between the groups (P<0.001). The tea leaves from the plantations of the moderate group were the high in content of secondary metabolites, and so the best in tea quality. 【Conclusion】 On the whole, nutrient management does not only affect soil fertility in the tea plantations in Anxi, but also influence quality of the Tieguanyin produced therein. Either excess or less fertilization is not suitable for production of high quality tea leaves. A proper N fertilizer application rate for high-quality tea production in Anxi tea region is recommended to be 200-400 kg·hm-2·a-1.
Key words:  Soil fertility  Tea leaf quality  Secondary metabolites  Nutrient management  Tea plantation