引用本文:孟红旗,郭晓明,杨 英,王明仕.采煤沉陷坡面土壤氮磷钾养分有效性的空间变异性[J].土壤学报,2020,57(4):844-854. DOI:10.11766/trxb201906140170
MENG Hongqi,GUO Xiaoming,YANG Ying,WANG Mingshi.Spatial Variability of Soil Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium Availability in Coal Mining Subsidence Slopes[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,2020,57(4):844-854. DOI:10.11766/trxb201906140170
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采煤沉陷坡面土壤氮磷钾养分有效性的空间变异性
孟红旗, 郭晓明, 杨 英, 王明仕
河南理工大学资源环境学院
摘要:
探索采煤沉陷坡面上土壤氮、磷和钾养分迁移转化的作用机理,对促进矿区生态环境综合整治的科学决策有重要理论和实践价值。以焦作九里山矿典型低潜水位采煤沉陷坑内的耕地和林地为研究对象,对比分析了土壤氮、磷和钾全量及有效态养分含量在不同土地利用类型(耕地和林地)、沉陷坡位(中心、坡底、坡中、坡顶和对照)和剖面深度(0~10、10~20、20~30、30~40、40~50 cm)的空间变异性。结果表明,沉陷坡面土壤养分含量空间变异性从大到小依次为:有效磷(118%)、有效氮(69%)、全氮(41%)、速效钾(27%)、全磷(19%)、全钾(4%)。相对于耕地,林地全磷和有效磷含量显著(P<0.001)降低,速效钾含量显著(P<0.001)升高。在沉陷坡面上,耕地土壤氮和钾的有效性在坡底凹陷区最大,而磷有效性在坡顶裂缝区最大;林地土壤氮、磷和钾的有效性均在坡底凹陷区最大,在中间坡面区最小。通过对土壤养分有效性在沉陷坡面上空间变异作用机理的分析,提出了低潜水位沉陷区土壤可持续管理的具体区划模式,以实现采煤沉陷区土地复垦改造的最小经济投入目标。
关键词:  采煤沉陷  土地利用  低潜水位  养分有效性  土壤可持续管理
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41502241)、河南省高等学校重点科研项目(16A210049)和河南省高校矿山环境保护与生态修复省级重点实验室培育基地开放课题(KF2014-05)资助
Spatial Variability of Soil Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium Availability in Coal Mining Subsidence Slopes
MENG Hongqi, GUO Xiaoming, YANG Ying, WANG Mingshi
School of Resources and Environment, Henan Polytechnic University
Abstract:
【Objective】In the central and northeastern parts of China (excluding the eastern part of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region), coal mining has caused extensive land subsidence, thus leading to land damage and soil degradation, which in turn seriously affects grain production, and intensifies conflicts between people and land. The aim of this study was to explore mechanisms for soil nutrients, for instance, nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K), migrating and transforming in coal mining subsidence slopes, and to provide certain scientific basis for comprehensive management of eco-environment in the mining areas. 【Method】The cultivated land and forest land in a coal mining subsidence, low in phreatic water level and typical of Jiulishan mining region in Jiaozuo City, Henan Province, China, were selected as object of the study. Soil samples were collected from soil layers (0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, 20-30 cm, 30-40 cm and 40~50 cm) of soil profiles distributed in different slope positions (center, bottom, middle, top and control) and lands different in land use for analysis of total contents and availabilities of N, P and K, and further for spatial variability of the indices. 【Result】It was found that in terms of nutrient spatial variability on the slope, the three soil nutrients followed an order of available P (118%) > available N (69%) > total N (41%) > available K (27%) > total P (19%) > total K (4%). Compared with the cultivated land, the forest land lowered significantly (P<0.001) in soil total P and available P, but ascended significantly (P<0.001) in soil available K. Along the subsidence slope, availabilities of soil N and K in the cultivated land was the highest at the depressed in the bottom of the slope, while that of soil P in cracky areas at the top of the slope. However, in the forest land on the slope, availabilities of soil N, P and K were the highest in the depressed zone at the bottom of the slope, and the lowest in the middle slope zone. The high spatial variability of soil nutrient availability therein could be explained by the following; 1) loss of dissolved organic N and available K from cultivated soils with surface runoff; 2) cracks enhancing soil redox potential in the farmland, thus promoting release of soil P; 3) translocation of available K with vertical leaching in the depressed zone at the bottom of the slope. 【Conclusion】Therefore, it is suggested that the land in such coal mining subsidence, low in phreatic water level, should be reclaimed in light of the rules of migration and transformation of soil nutrients and soil water relative to position along the subsidence slope. The cracky area on the top of the slope, the middle slope and the depressed at the bottom of the slope should be reclaimed into high-yield cultivated land or vegetable gardens, shrubbery and economic forest or orchard, respectively, so as to realize sustainable soil management and the goal of cost-minimizing input in land reclamation of coal mining subsidence.
Key words:  Coal mining subsidence  Land use  Low phreatic water level  Nutrient availability  Sustainable soil management