引用本文:吴小刚,王文平,李 斌,梁跃龙,刘以珍.中亚热带森林土壤有机碳的海拔梯度变化[J].土壤学报,2020,57(6):1539-1547. DOI:10.11766/trxb201909300184
WU Xiaogang,WANG Wenping,LI Bin,LIANG Yuelong,LIU Yizhen.Altitudinal Gradient of Soil Organic Carbon in Forest Soils in the Mid-Subtropical Zone of China[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,2020,57(6):1539-1547. DOI:10.11766/trxb201909300184
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中亚热带森林土壤有机碳的海拔梯度变化
吴小刚1, 王文平2, 李 斌2, 梁跃龙1, 刘以珍2
1.江西九连山国家级自然保护区;2.南昌大学生命科学学院
摘要:
气候过渡区的山地森林土壤有机碳对气候波动的响应敏感,探讨气候过渡区森林土壤有机碳的海拔格局,是推演区域土壤碳库时空动态的关键内容。在南亚热带向中亚热带的气候过渡区江西九连山国家级自然保护区,根据不同土壤类型的海拔分布格局,沿海拔采集20个土壤剖面,分析土壤有机碳含量和土壤碳密度的海拔分布格局。结果表明:(1)不同土壤类型和深度均对土壤有机碳含量有影响,山地草甸土有机碳含量更高,达39.72 ± 19.14 g•kg-1,土壤有机碳主要集中在0 ~ 40 cm,深度分布表现出“表聚现象”;(2)不同层次土壤有机碳含量对海拔的响应方式不一,上层土壤对海拔梯度变化响应更敏感,上层0 ~ 40 cm土壤有机碳随海拔升高而增加,下层40 ~ 100 cm土壤有机碳含量随海拔升高而降低;(3)土壤碳密度为10.64 ± 0.72 kg•m-2,但不同海拔的土壤碳密度无显著差异。海拔对土壤有机碳含量分布产生影响,但随着土层深度增加,海拔对土壤有机碳含量的影响变小;而海拔对土壤有机碳密度格局无显著影响,并依此估算九连山自然国家级自然保护区森林土壤有机碳储量为1.426 ± 0.096 Pg。
关键词:  土壤有机碳  土壤类型  海拔梯度  气候过渡区
基金项目:林业国家级自然保护区专项补助资金
Altitudinal Gradient of Soil Organic Carbon in Forest Soils in the Mid-Subtropical Zone of China
WU Xiaogang1, WANG Wenping2, LI Bin2, LIANG Yuelong1, LIU Yizhen2
1.Jiangxi Jiulianshan National Nature Reserve;2.School of Life Science , Nanchang University
Abstract:
【Objective】 Forest soil organic carbon (SOC) is an important component of the carbon storage in the forest ecosystem. Accumulation and storage of SOC in the forest soil can directly affect carbon budgeting in the terrestrial ecosystem and global carbon recycling. SOC in mountain forest soils in the transitional climatic zone is sensitive to climatic change. So the subject of variation of SOC along an altitudinal gradient is also a key topic concerning regional carbon dynamics. Hence, the survey of altitudinal gradient of SOC in a transitional climate zone is far more valuable than that in a typical climate zone to predicting variation of regional SOC in response to climate changes. The objective of this study was to investigate effects of altitude on SOC so as to explain how carbon stocks distributes in the subtropical transitional climate zone of East China. 【Method】 A total of 20 soil profiles were prepared along the altitude (179-1 410 m a.s.l.) in Jiangxi Jiulianshan National Nature Reserve, located just in the transitional climate zone from the south-subtropical zone to the mid-subtropical zone. Soil samples were collected separately from five layers (0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, 20-40 cm, 40-60 cm and 60-100 cm) of each of the soil profiles (0-100 cm). After being air-dried, the samples were analyzed for soil organic carbon content with the potassium bichromate oxidation titration method. Soil organic carbon density (SCOD) and soil organic carbon stocks (SOCS) were calculated. Along the altitude, red soil, red-yellow soil, yellow soil and meadow soil was distributed in sequence, so impacts of altitude on SOCC and SBD (soil bulk density) could be explored by analyzing the two parameters in the four types of soils. Soil layer depth and soil type were two factors affecting SOCC and SBD and their impacts were analyzed with two-way Analysis of Variance (two way- ANOVA); impact of soil type on SOCD was with ANOVA; and relationships of altitude with SOCC and SOCD were with Pearson correlation analysis and nonlinear analysis, respectively. 【Result】 Results show: (1) SBD increased dramatically with soil depth, but did not vary much between soil types; soil type and soil layer depth influenced SOCC, with the mountain meadow soil being the highest in SOCC among the four types and varying in the range of 39.72 ± 19.14 g•kg-1; SOC accumulated mainly in the topsoil; SOCC in 0-0 cm was fourfold of that in 60-100cm; and 84.74% of the SOC in the soil were accumulated in the 0-40cm soil layer of the soil profile. (2) Topsoil was more sensitive than the other soil layers to change in altitude, and the effect of altitude on SOCC declined with soil depth; SOCC in the 0- 40 cm topsoil increased with altitude, but in the 40-100 cm subsoil layer, SOCC acted reversely. (3) ANOVA shows that soil type did not contribute much to soil carbon density, so SOCD was estimated at 10.64 ± 0.72 kg•m-2 and SOCS at 1.426 ± 0.096 Pg in the soil of the nature reserve. Pearson correlation analysis and nonlinear analysis shows that the relationship between altitude and SOCD could be expressed as SOCD = 1×10-5 altitude2 - 0.0227 altitude+ 17.928. 【Conclusion】 The findings in the study lead to the conclusion that the effects of altitude on SOC spatial distribution is quite complicated. Soil organic carbon accumulates mostly in the topsoil layer (0- 40 cm) of the soil profiles. Topsoil SOCC increases with altitude, but the trend weakens with soil depth. However, altitude does not have any impact on SOCD.
Key words:  Soil organic carbon  Soil type  Altitudinal gradient  Transitional climatic zone