引用本文:李委涛,刘 明,李朋发,李桂龙,江春玉,吴 萌,仇存璞,董元华,李忠佩.近40年余江县高产水稻土有机碳及养分含量的演变特征[J].土壤学报,2020,57(4):937-942. DOI:10.11766/trxb201904180202
LI Weitao,LIU Ming,LI Pengfa,LI Guilong,JIANG Chunyu,WU Meng,QIU Cunpu,DONG Yuanhua,LI Zhongpei.Temporal Variation of Soil Organic C and Nutrients in High Yield Paddy Soils of Yujiang County in the Past 40 Years[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,2020,57(4):937-942. DOI:10.11766/trxb201904180202
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近40年余江县高产水稻土有机碳及养分含量的演变特征
李委涛1, 刘 明2, 李朋发1, 李桂龙1, 江春玉1, 吴 萌2, 仇存璞1, 董元华1, 李忠佩1
1.土壤与农业可持续发展国家重点实验室(中国科学院南京土壤研究所);2.土壤与农业可持续发展国家重点实验室(中国科学院南京土壤研究所)
摘要:
土壤有机碳及养分是土壤肥力的重要指标,研究土壤肥力的演变规律对提升地力、维持农业可持续发展具有重要的理论指导意义。参照第二次土壤普查和2002年采样背景资料,通过田间采样分析及对比研究,探讨江西省余江县高产水稻土有机碳、养分、pH及阳离子交换量(CEC)的状况及其近40年的演变规律。结果表明,余江县域内上表层水稻土(0~10 cm)有机碳、全氮、有效磷和速效钾含量分别是(27.3±1.3)g·kg-1、(2.9±0.2)g·kg-1、(40.5±3.8)mg·kg-1、(148±7.9)mg·kg-1,土壤肥力处于较高水平。与1980年背景资料对比发现,有机碳和土壤养分均有显著提升;尤其自2002年以来,近15年0~10 cm层次水稻土有机碳、全氮及速效钾的增幅分别达35%、40%和34%,但有效磷含量变化并不显著,而在10~20 cm层有效磷含量显著增加了56%。与2002年采样结果相比,0~10 cm、10~20 cm和 20~40 cm pH显著降低,而CEC显著增加。长期植稻过程中施用化肥,尤以近15年来,土壤有机碳、养分及CEC显著提高,但同时造成土壤pH下降。
关键词:  水稻土  有机碳  氮磷钾  pH  土层
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFD0200309, 2018YFD0301104-01)、中国博士后科学基金面上项目(2018M640530)与江苏省博士后基金项目(2018K202C)共同资助
Temporal Variation of Soil Organic C and Nutrients in High Yield Paddy Soils of Yujiang County in the Past 40 Years
LI Weitao,LIU Ming,LI Pengfa,LI Guilong,JIANG Chunyu,WU Meng,QIU Cunpu,DONG Yuanhua,LI Zhongpei
State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences
Abstract:
【Objective】Soil organic carbon and nutrients are important indicators of soil fertility. The study on rules of the temporal variation of soil fertility is of important theoretical guiding significance to improving soil fertility and maintaining sustainable development of the agriculture. 【Method】Based on the data of the Second National Soil Survey in 1980 and the soil sampling in 2002, soil samples (0-15 cm) were collected from three soil layers (0-10, 10-20 and 20-40 cm) at the same 26 sampling sites in paddy fields of Yujiang County in 2017 for analysis of soil organic carbon, nutrients, pH and CEC, and comparison was performed for rules of the variation of soil fertility in the past 40 years. 【Result】 The contents of organic carbon, total nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium in the upper surface paddy soil (0-10 cm) in Yujiang County was (27.3±1.3) g·kg-1, (2.9±0.2) g·kg-1, (40.5±3.8) mg·kg-1 and (148±7.9) mg·kg-1, respectively. Compared with the data in 1980, organic carbon and soil nutrients have significantly improved; especially organic carbon, total nitrogen and available potassium in the 0-10 cm soil layer of the paddy fields have increased by 35%, 40% and 34%, respectively, in the past 15 years since 2002. The available phosphorus content in the 0-10 cm soil layer did not change much, while it did increase by 56% in the 10-20 cm soil layer. Compared with the data obtained in 2002, pH in the 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm and 20-40 cm soil layers decreased significantly, while CEC did reversely.【Conclusion】Long-term paddy cultivation applied with chemical fertilizer significantly increased soil organic carbon, nutrients and CEC, but decreased soil pH, especially in the past 15 years.
Key words:  Paddy soil  Soil organic carbon(SOC)  Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium  pH  Soil layer