引用本文:耿国涛,陆志峰,卢 涌,明 日,肖国滨,范连益,任 涛,鲁剑巍.红壤地区直播油菜施硼对籽粒产量和品质的影响[J].土壤学报,2020,57(4):928-936. DOI:10.11766/trxb201905280207
GENG Guotao,LU Zhifeng,LU Yong,MING Ri,XIAO Guobin,FAN Lianyi,REN Tao,LU Jianwei.Effect of Boron Application on seed yield and quality of Direct Sown Winter Rapeseed ( Brassica napus L.) in Red Soil Region[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,2020,57(4):928-936. DOI:10.11766/trxb201905280207
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红壤地区直播油菜施硼对籽粒产量和品质的影响
耿国涛1, 陆志峰1, 卢 涌1, 明 日2, 肖国滨3, 范连益4, 任 涛1, 鲁剑巍1
1.华中农业大学微量元素研究中心/农业农村部长江中下游耕地保育重点实验室;2.桂林市农业科学院/广西农业科学院桂北分院;3.江西省红壤研究所;4.湖南省作物研究所
摘要:
红壤地区是我国重要的油菜种植区,研究直播冬油菜硼肥施用效果,为直播油菜科学施硼提供理论依据,对促进区域油菜产业发展有重要意义。2017—2018年在江西、湖南、湖北南部和广西北部油菜主产区布置7个硼肥大田试验,设置不施硼、施硼肥(含硼量100 g·kg-1)4.5 kg·hm-2、9.0 kg·hm-2、13.5 kg·hm-2四个处理。结果表明,红壤地区土壤有效硼普遍含量低,直播油菜施硼增产效果显著,油菜籽平均产量和施硼经济效益在硼肥用量9.0 kg·hm-2时最高,与不施硼相比增产1 021 kg·hm-2,增产率达110.6%,分别较施用硼肥4.5 kg·hm-2和13.5 kg·hm-2增产16.6%和3.1%。施硼显著增加直播油菜收获密度、单株角果数和每角粒数,进而增加了油菜产量;同时硼肥的施用可显著提高油菜籽的含油率、油酸和亚油酸含量,与不施硼相比,施用硼肥9.0 kg·hm-2处理各品质指标分别增加26.9%、45.9%和72.6%,相应增加产油量136.1%。在硼肥用量13.5 kg·hm-2范围内,油菜地上部硼含量和硼累积量随着施硼量的增加而增加,但硼肥利用率呈现降低的趋势,硼肥用量为9.0 kg·hm-2处理的硼肥当季利用率也仅为9.4%。综合结果显示,红壤地区直播油菜施硼增产增收效果显著,直播油菜生产中应重视硼肥的合理施用,区域硼肥的推荐用量为9.0 kg·hm-2左右。
关键词:  直播油菜  产量  硼肥适宜用量  品质  硼肥利用率
基金项目:?国家重点研发计划项目(2018YFD0200900)和国家油菜产业技术体系建设专项(CARS-12)资助
Effect of Boron Application on seed yield and quality of Direct Sown Winter Rapeseed ( Brassica napus L.) in Red Soil Region
GENG Guotao1, LU Zhifeng1, LU Yong1, MING Ri2, XIAO Guobin3, FAN Lianyi4, REN Tao1, LU Jianwei1
1.Microelements Research Center of Huazhong Agricultural University/Key Laboratory of Arable Land Conservation in the Middle and Lower Reaches of Yangtse River, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs;2.Guilin Academy of Agricultural Sciences/Guibei Branch of Guangxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences;3.Jiangxi Institute of Red Soil;4.Hunan Crop Research Institute
Abstract:
【Objective】The red soil region, known as a prominent rapeseed growing area in China, normally coincides with low soil pH and light texture, and hence susceptibility of leaching loss of available boron, thus resulting in boron deficiency in the soil . Rapeseed, being a high boron demanding crop, is very sensitive to boron (B) deficiency. With rapid development of the society and changes in structure of the rural labor, direct sowing of rapeseed is developing and expanding in scale and area rapidly. However, almost nothing has been done on effects of direct sowing on sensitivity of the rapeseed to boron deficiency and their mechanisms. therefore large-scaled field experiments was laid and carried out in this region in an attempt to explore effects of boron fertilizer application on yield, seed quality and economic benefits of the crop and then to provide a reasonable guidance for B management in the production of rapeseed in the red region. 【Method】During the 2017—2018 growing season, seven field experiments designed to have four treatments each in B application rate: (1) B0 (without boron fertilizer); (2) B4.5 (4.5 kg boron fertilizer hm-2); (3) B9.0 (9.0 kg boron fertilizer hm-2); (4) B13.5 (13.5 kg boron fertilizer hm-2 ), were carried out in Jiangxi, Hunan, South Hubei and North Guangxi. The boron fertilizer used is a specialized slow release boron fertilizer pelletized the size of a seed and containing 10% of B. The boron fertilizer was mixed with seeds and sown together (6 kg·hm-2). 【Result】Boron application significantly increased rapeseed yield at all the experimental sites, and the increment decreased with rising soil available boron content, and peaked in Treatment B9.0, which was1 021 kg·hm-2 or 110.6 % higher in yield and 4 938 yuan·hm-2 higher in economic profit than Treatment B0 . However, the application of boron fertilizer at a higher rate did not have much effect on yield or biomass of the crop. A similar pattern, but lower in magnitude, was observed with shoot biomass. It was also found that boron application significantly improved economic indices of the crop, such as harvest intensity, number of grains per pod, number of pods per plant, and contents of oil, oleic acid and linoleic acid of the seed, except for the indices of thousand grain weight and protein content in the seeds. So it is quite obvious that boron application increases oil yield and improves quality of the harvest of the direct seeding crop. Boron application increased boron content in all the parts of the plant at the manuring stage, especially in pod shell and stem. Boron accumulation in the stem, pod shell and seed could reach up to 79.5%, 244.2% and 125.6% in the treatments applied with boron than in the treatment applied with no boron. Treatment B9.0 was the highest in seed yield, but its boron fertilizer recovery rate was only 9.4%, which suggests that utilization efficiency of the applied boron fertilizer was still very low and a large proportion of lost via leaching and surface runoff owing to low soil pH and light texture. 【Conclusion】As the soil in the red soil region is very low in soil available boron content, boron application shows a significant yield increasing effect on direct sown rapeseed Boron application increases seed yield by increasing its per-plant productivity and harvest density of direct sown rapeseed, which is more sensitive to boron deficiency than transplanted rapeseed. Boron application also improves quality of the seeds and increases contents of oil, oleic acid and linoleic acid. Though the practice of boron application is still quite low in apparent utilization efficiency, it does promote boron adsorption and accumulation of the direct sown rapeseed crops. Considering seed yield and quality, economic profit and boron fertilizer utilization efficiency in all, the boron application rate of 9.0 kg·hm-2 is recommended as the optimal practice of boron fertilization in the red soil region.
Key words:  Direct sown rapeseed  Yield  Appropriate boron application rate  Quality  Boron use efficiency