引用本文:丛 萍,逄焕成,王 婧,刘 娜,李玉义,张 莉.粉碎与颗粒秸秆高量还田对黑土亚耕层土壤有机碳的提升效应[J].土壤学报,2020,57(4):811-823. DOI:10.11766/trxb201907150244
CONG Ping,PANG Huancheng,WANG Jing,LIU Na,LI Yuyi,ZHANG Li.Effect of Returning Chopped and Pelletized Straw at A High Rate Enhancing Soil Organic Carbon in Subsoil of Farmlands of Black Soil[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,2020,57(4):811-823. DOI:10.11766/trxb201907150244
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粉碎与颗粒秸秆高量还田对黑土亚耕层土壤有机碳的提升效应
丛 萍,逄焕成,王 婧,刘 娜,李玉义,张 莉
1.中国农业科学院农业资源与农业区划研究所,北京 100081;2.中国农业科学院烟草研究所,山东青岛 266100
摘要:
针对东北黑土亚耕层有机碳匮乏,且秸秆体量大、利用困难的问题,于2015—2018年开展田间定位实验,以秸秆不还田为对照(CK),探究粉碎秸秆(FS)与秸秆颗粒(KL)处理下1倍量(15 t•hm-2)、3倍量(45 t•hm-2)、5倍量(75 t•hm-2)的深埋还田对土壤有机碳含量、有机碳结构以及土壤养分比例的影响,旨在通过“变废为宝”促进黑土地可持续发展。结果表明:1)秸秆还田对20~40 cm土壤亚耕层有机碳提升效果显著,随着秸秆倍量的增加,亚耕层土壤有机碳在2%~20%(1 a)、5%~27%(2 a)、1%~18%(3 a)之间变化,高倍量还田优势显著;秸秆还田2 a土壤有机碳增长率最高,表明还田第2年是有机碳的主要积累时期,且秸秆倍量是影响有机碳变化更重要的因素。2)秸秆还田3 a后,FS5处理的脂化度较高而KL5处理的芳香度较高,粉碎秸秆高量还田更易促进烷基碳链型有机碳合成,而KL5处理易促进芳香烃类有机碳合成。3)高量还田后亚耕层土壤碳氮比与碳磷比增幅大于10%,碳钾比增幅大于20%,且秸秆颗粒还田对养分元素比例的提高具有短期快速效应,而粉碎秸秆具有长期缓释效应。秸秆高量深埋还田显著提高亚耕层土壤有机碳含量,平衡碳与氮、磷、钾养分元素比例关系,是增厚培肥黑土层以及解决东北秸秆还田问题的可行方法。
关键词:  秸秆还田  高量  黑土  有机碳  亚耕层  秸秆颗粒
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFD0300804)
Effect of Returning Chopped and Pelletized Straw at A High Rate Enhancing Soil Organic Carbon in Subsoil of Farmlands of Black Soil
CONG Ping1,2, PANG Huancheng3, WANG Jing1, LIU Na3, LI Yuyi1, ZHANG Li1
1.Institute of Agriculture Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agriculture Science, Beijing 100081, China;2.Tobacco Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agriculture Science, Qingdao, Shandong 266100, China;3.1.Institute of Agriculture Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agriculture Science, Beijing 100081
Abstract:
【Objective】To solve the problems of soil organic carbon deficiency in the subsoil layer and the yield of crop straw being too large in volume to make full use of in farmlands of black soil in Northeast China, a long-term (2015—2018) field experiment was carried out. 【Method】The field experiment was designed to have three treatments, i.e. CK (no straw returned), FS (returning of chopped straw) and KL (returning of pelletized straw), and three straw returning rates, i.e. Rate 1 (15 t•hm-2), Rate 2 (45 t•hm-2, 3 times as high as Rate 1) and 3 (75 t•hm-2, 5 times as high as Rate 1). The straw was deeply incorporated into the subsoil layer. Soil samples were collected from all the plots separately each year for analysis of soil organic carbon content, organic carbon structure and soil nutrient ratio in an attempt to find out a way to turn waste into treasure and hence to promote sustainable development of black soil. 【Result】Results show: 1. Organic carbon content in the subsoil of the treatment plots varied in the range of 2%-20%(1 a), 5%-27%(2 a) and 1%-18%(3 a). The effect of straw returning raising organic carbon content in the subsoil was significant and improved with increasing returning rate and the effect of the treatments the highest in returning rate were the most significant and particularly in the second year, which indicates that organic carbon accumulation occurred mainly in the second year. Two-way variance analysis shows that straw returning rate was an important factor affecting soil organic carbon; 2. Nuclear magnetic resonance test shows that at the end of the experiment, the organic carbon in Treatment FS5 was found the highest in aliphaticity, while that in Treatment KL5 the highest in aromaticity, indicating that chopped straw is more likely to promote formation of organic carbon of alkyl carbon chain, while pelletized straw is to promote formation of organic carbon of aromatic hydrocarbon type; 3. In Treatments FS5 and KL5, soil C/N and C/P ratios increased by >10%, and C/K ratio did by >20%. The effect in Treatments KL was short and instant, while that in Treatments FS was long and slow. 【Conclusion】In a conclusion, deep incorporation of processed straw at a high rate can significantly increase organic carbon in the subsoil layer and help keep soil carbon in balance with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. It is, therefore, a feasible way to build up the black soil in thickness and fertility and to solve the difficult problem of straw returning in Northeast China.
Key words:  Straw returning  High dosage  Black soil  Organic carbon  Subsoil  Pelletized straw