引用本文:苏兰茜,白亭玉,鱼 欢,赵青云,吴 刚,谭乐和.有机无机肥配施对菠萝蜜种植土壤线虫群落的影响[J].土壤学报,2020,57(6):1504-1513. DOI:10.11766/trxb201909270245
SU Lanxi,BAI Tingyu,YU Huan,ZHAO Qingyun,WU Gang,TAN Lehe.Effects of Inorganic Fertilizer Combined with Organic Manure on Soil Nematode Community under Jackfruit Trees[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,2020,57(6):1504-1513. DOI:10.11766/trxb201909270245
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有机无机肥配施对菠萝蜜种植土壤线虫群落的影响
苏兰茜,白亭玉,鱼 欢,赵青云,吴 刚,谭乐和
中国热带农业科学院香料饮料研究所
摘要:
为探究有机肥施用对菠萝蜜种植土壤线虫群落结构的影响,以马来西亚1号菠萝蜜嫁接苗为试验材料,设置CK(不施肥)、100CF(100%化肥)、30OM(30%有机肥+70%化肥)、50OM(50%有机肥+50%化肥)、70OM(70%有机肥+30%化肥)、100OM(100%有机肥)6个处理,比较不同施肥方式下菠萝蜜幼苗生长及土壤线虫群落的差异。结果表明:与不施肥和纯施化肥相比,有机-无机配施显著促进菠萝蜜幼苗生物量积累,增加土壤pH、有机质含量。其中食微线虫和杂食/捕食线虫的占比随着有机肥用量的增加呈增长趋势,而植食性线虫占比呈下降趋势。增施有机肥能显著提高土壤线虫多样性指数(H')和均匀度指数(J'),土壤食物网以细菌主导的分解途径占更大比例。β多样性分析结果表明,除50OM和100CF处理构建的线虫群落结构相似外,其他处理的线虫群落结构差异显著。菠萝蜜幼苗地上部干重与土壤食细菌线虫丰度、有机质和pH呈显著正相关,而植食性线虫丰度与土壤pH、有机质、碱解氮含量和食微线虫丰度呈显著负相关。食细菌线虫丰度与土壤有机质和pH呈显著正相关。有机-无机配施能够提高土壤线虫多样性和均匀度,平衡不同食性线虫的占比,改善土壤养分,使土壤环境趋于健康,从而促进菠萝蜜生长。
关键词:  菠萝蜜  有机肥  土壤化学性质  线虫群落
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41907092)和海南省自然科学基金项目(319QN314)
Effects of Inorganic Fertilizer Combined with Organic Manure on Soil Nematode Community under Jackfruit Trees
SU Lanxi1, BAI Tingyu2, YU Huan2, ZHAO Qingyun2, WU Gang2, TAN Lehe2
1.Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences;2.Spice and Beverage Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences
Abstract:
【Objective】In order to investigate effects of organic manure on soil nematode community under jackfruit trees, a comparison study was conducted using grafted Malaysian No.1 saplings. 【Method】The experiment in the study was designed to have six treatments, i. e., CK (no fertilizer), 100CF (100% chemical fertilizer), 30OM (30% organic manure plus 70% chemical fertilizer), 50OM (50% organic manure plus 50% chemical fertilizer), 70OM (70% organic manure plus 30% chemical fertilizer), 100OM (100% organic manure). 【Result】 Results show that compared with CK and Treatment 100CF, all the other four treatments had varying significant effects of promoting biomass accumulation of the jackfruit saplings and increasing soil pH and organic matter in the soils. With increasing organic manure replacement rate, microbivorous nematodes and omnivores/predators increased in proportion, while plant-parasites decreased, the soil nematodes as a whole increased in diversity (H') and evenness (J') significantly, and the bacteria-dominated decomposition pathways in the soil food web did in proportion, too. β diversity analysis shows that the treatments varied significantly in nematode community structure, except for Treatments 50OM and 100CF, which were quite similar in that field. Dry weight of the shoot of the jackfruit saplings was significantly and positively related to abundance of bacterivores, organic matter and soil pH, while abundance of plant-parasites was negatively related to soil pH, organic matter, alkalyzable nitrogen and abundance of microbivorous ones, and abundance of bacterivores was significantly and positively related to soil organic matter and pH. 【Conclusion】Combined application of chemical fertilizers and organic manure can improve soil nematodes in diversity and evenness, balance the nematodes different in feeding habit in proportion, improve soil fertility and make the soil environment healthier and hence promote growth of the jackfruit saplings.
Key words:  Jackfruit  Organic manure  Soil chemical properties  Nematode community