引用本文:杨修一,于起庆,耿计彪,杨玉坤,王 嘉,刘前进.包膜含缩节胺氯化钾对棉花产量及土壤钾素的影响[J].土壤学报,2020,57(6):1439-1448. DOI:10.11766/trxb201907120286
YANG Xiuyi,YU Qiqing,GENG Jibiao,YANG Yukun,WANG Jia,LIU Qianjin.Effects of Coated Potassium Chloride Containing Mepiquat Chloride on Cotton Yield and Soil Potassium[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,2020,57(6):1439-1448. DOI:10.11766/trxb201907120286
【打印本页】   【HTML】   【下载PDF全文】   查看/发表评论  【EndNote】   【RefMan】   【BibTex】
←前一篇|后一篇→ 过刊浏览    高级检索
本文已被:浏览 275次   下载 236 本文二维码信息
码上扫一扫!
分享到: 微信 更多
包膜含缩节胺氯化钾对棉花产量及土壤钾素的影响
杨修一, 于起庆, 耿计彪, 杨玉坤, 王 嘉, 刘前进
山东省水土保持与环境保育重点实验室,临沂大学资源环境学院/农林科学学院
摘要:
棉花是具无限生长特性的喜钾作物,为解决其生育期内多次追施钾肥和叶面喷施缩节胺的用工问题,实现轻简化种植目标,研究包膜含缩节胺氯化钾对棉花产量、经济效益和土壤钾素变化特征的影响。试验设5个处理,分别为一次基施180 kg?hm-2包膜含缩节胺氯化钾(CRKMC)、减少30%钾素用量(126 kg?hm-2)的包膜含缩节胺氯化钾(70%CRKMC)、基施180 kg·hm-2普通包膜氯化钾(CRK)、分次施用180 kg?hm-2普通氯化钾(KCl)和对照(CK,不施钾肥),后三个处理叶面喷施三次缩节胺。结果表明:等量施钾条件下,CRKMC和CRK较KCl籽棉产量分别增加8.81%和9.36%,经济效益分别增加15.53%和12.86%,70%CRKMC较KCl增产6.53%,增加净收入13.64%。CRKMC抑制棉花盛花期前的株高,提高后期株高、茎粗和叶绿素含量,使生物量较KCl增加18.56%~24.98%,提高钾素吸收量,表观利用率增加25.06~38.83个百分点。CRKMC中的钾素和缩节胺在土壤中呈“先慢后快而后趋于平缓”的规律,释放高峰出现在盛花期至始絮期,显著提高蕾期以后土壤中的速效钾含量。因此,土壤基施包膜含缩节胺氯化钾,可合理协调棉花生长势指标,满足钾素吸收需求,减少30%用量仍有较高的经济效益和钾素利用率,实现了缩节胺和钾素在同一时空条件下的一体化调控,有助于棉花减肥、高产和轻简化种植。
关键词:  包膜含缩节胺氯化钾  棉花  钾素利用效率  土壤速效钾  经济效益
基金项目:山东省自然科学基金项目(ZR2018PD001)、中国博士后科学基金资助项目(2017M622120)和国家自然科学基金项目(41571261)资助
Effects of Coated Potassium Chloride Containing Mepiquat Chloride on Cotton Yield and Soil Potassium
YANG Xiuyi, YU Qiqing, GENG Jibiao, YANG Yukun, WANG Jia, LIU Qianjin
Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Water and Soil Conservation and Environmental Protection, College of Resources and Environment/College of Agricultural and Forestry Science, Linyi University
Abstract:
【Objective】Potassium is a main nutrient element that affects cotton yield and fiber quality. Repeated application of potassium fertilizer can increase cotton yield, but topdressing not only causes mechanical damage to the crop, but also increases labor cost, thus reducing cotton planting benefits. Mepiquat chloride (MC) is a kind of plant growth regulator characterized by low toxicity and water solubility. It is now widely used in cotton planting countries all over the world to inhibit vegetative growth of the plant and hence to eliminate the traditional labor-costing pruning operations. However, so far little is known about whether MC could increase cotton yield when it is applied into the cotton fields. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate effects of coated potassium chloride containing MC on cotton yield, economic benefit and balance of soil potassium.【Method】A field experiment was initiated in 2018 with five treatments different in potassium application pattern and three replicates for each treatment, i.e. Treatment CRKMC (basal application of 180 kg·hm-2 coated potassium chloride containing mepiquat chloride); Treatment 70% CRKMC (reduced potassium dosage (126 kg·hm-2) or 70% of CRKMC); Treatment CRK (basal application of 180 kg·hm-2 common coated potassium chloride); Treatment KCl (split application of 180 kg·hm-2 ordinary potassium chloride, 60% basal and 40% topdressing at the first bloom stage); and CK (no potassium fertilizer used), and in addition foliar spraying of MC was performed three times on each of the latter three treatments.【Result】Treatment CRKMC and CRK increased cotton yield by 8.81% and 9.36%, and economic benefit of the crop by 15.53% and 12.86%, respectively, while Treatment 70%CRKMC increased cotton yield by 6.53% and net income by 13.64%, respectively as compared with Treatment KCl. Treatment CRKMC inhibited cotton plant height before the full-bloom stage, but increased plant height, stem diameter and chlorophyll value at later stages (from the full-bloom stage to maturity stage), and plant biomass by 18.56%~24.98%, as compared with Treatment KCl, enhanced potassium uptake, and also improved apparent K use efficency by 25.06%~38.83%. Release of Potassium and MC in the CRKMC exhibited a trend of “slow – fast – leveling off” in the soil, and peaked during the period between the full bloom stage and the initial boll-opening stage, which significantly increased the content of available potassium in the soil after the squaring stage.【Conclusion】Therefore, application of CRKMC into soil can reasonably regulate the growth potential indices of cotton and meet the demand of cotton for potassium. The application of CRKMC 30% less in potassium dosage can still improve economic benefits of the crop and potassium use efficiency. So CRKMC can realize integrated coordination of MC and K under the same temporal/spatial conditions, which helps reduce fertilization rate, improve crop yield and simplify crop management.
Key words:  Coated potassium chloride containing mepiquat chloride  Cotton  Potassium use efficiency  Soil available potassium  Economic benefit