引用本文:杨淇钧,吴克宁,冯 喆,赵 瑞,张小丹,李晓亮.大空间尺度土壤质量评价研究进展与启示[J].土壤学报,2020,57(3):565-578. DOI:10.11766/trxb201908120364
YANG Qijun,WU Kening,FENG Zhe,ZHAO Rui,ZHANG Xiaodan,LI Xiaoliang.Soil Quality Assessment on Large Spatial Scales:Advancement and Revelation[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,2020,57(3):565-578. DOI:10.11766/trxb201908120364
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大空间尺度土壤质量评价研究进展与启示
杨淇钧1 , 吴克宁1,2, 冯 喆1, 赵 瑞1, 张小丹1, 李晓亮1
1. 中国地质大学(北京)土地科学技术学院,北京 100083;2. 自然资源部土地整治重点实验室,北京 100035
摘要:
土壤质量评价的空间尺度决定了评价结果的适用范围与功能,然而一直以来大空间尺度相关研究相对缺乏。为了分析其核心内容、方法论特征和发展趋势,构建了土壤质量评价相关概念认知框架,综述了当前大空间尺度理论研究和多国实践。分析结果表明:(1)全球-地区尺度土壤质量评价研究基本遵循了“制定评价目标-明确评价对象和涉及的土壤功能-选取评价指标与评价模型-输出评价结果”的技术路线,在评价目标、对象和指标选取等方面侧重反映土壤的自然资源属性与固有质量,常见综合评价模型应用;(2)土壤功能分解与表达逐渐成为土壤质量评价的核心,驱动了相关研究的多维度、多尺度发展。目前亟待开展:对应复合管理目标的广域空间土壤质量统一评价,根据土壤功能分布、土壤类型特征及土地利用方式,明确国家土壤资源分区利用与保护策略;通过多源地学数据集成与基于土壤功能的评价模型研发,发现大空间尺度土壤质量演变规律,协同大、中、小空间尺度研究以探明土壤质量评价的尺度效应。
关键词:  土壤质量  评价方法  空间尺度  土壤功能
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2018YFE0107000、2017YFF0206800)
Soil Quality Assessment on Large Spatial Scales:Advancement and Revelation
YANG Qijun, WU Kening, FENG Zhe, ZHAO Rui, ZHANG Xiaodan, LI Xiaoliang
1. School of Land Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083, China; 2. Key Laboratory of Land Consolidation and Rehabilitation, Ministry of Nature Resources, Beijing 100035, China
Abstract:
The meaning of soil quality (SQ) and the scale for SQ assessment varies with goal of the practices of using and managing soils, and the latter has become an important perspective in the research of SQ assessment (hereinafter referred to as “the research”). Existing researches in this aspect focus mainly on SQ assessments on small and medium spatial scales under a specific land use type or farming conditions, while little has been done on the research on large spatial scales.【Objective】In order to identify core content of SQ assessment, and to analyze methodological characteristics and development trends of the research on large spatial scales.【Method】In this paper, a conceptual cognitive framework for SQ assessment was built up based on concepts discrimination, and specific scopes of the large spatial scales of the research were defined via literature statistics, and then a review was presented of some representative theoretical studies and practice in various countries.【Result】 Results show: (1) The scope of a large spatial scale for SQ assessment may vary from global to continental, national and regional scales; the research basically follows the technical route of “set goals – specify objects and related soil functions (SFs) – select indicators and models – output results”; in specifying goals, objects and indicators, focuses were laid on natural resource attributes of soils; data were obtained through soil surveys, soil sampling and sample analysis; comprehensive assessment models were often used; generally, the assessment index system encompasses the inherent quality indicators that reflect background properties of soils, and the total number of indicators is small (about 6~12). (2) Decomposition and expression of SFs has gradually become cores of SQ assessment; mapping of assessment goals to soil properties and processes based on SFs drives multi-dimensional and multi-scale development of the research. (3) SQ and arable land quality belongs separately to environmental quality and management tools, and the connotations of the two are essentially different and should be clearly distinguished.【Conclusion】At present, for large spatial scales assessment, identification of goals and acquisition and integration of data still need to have certain breakthroughs, and call urgently for deployment: (1) to characterize spatial variability of the soil resources corresponding to the composite management goals, and to realize unified spatial SQ assessment over a wide area; (2) to identify corresponding soil threats, to evaluate land suitability and to recommend strategies for zoning of wide-ranged spatial soil resources for utilization or protection, in the light of SFs distribution, soil type characteristics and land use patterns; (3) to specify occurring conditions, processes, influencing factors and mechanism of SQ evolution over a large spatial scale of area, and to explore scale effects of SQ assessment by collaborating the research on small, medium and large spatial scales through integration of multi-source geoscience datasets and based on the development of SFs assessment models. Under the new scenario of unified management of natural resources, China should absorb the experiences of other countries, unfold the third national soil survey as soon as possible, and establish a national scale soil quality assessment system.
Key words:  Soil quality  Assessment method  Spatial scale  Soil function