引用本文:陈海霞,黄宗胜,赵明伟,李祖国,刘逸夫,张丽欣,杨 春,杨政蓉,张元博.喀斯特地区四种草本植物及其基质的优先选择[J].土壤学报,2020,57(4):1017-1031. DOI:10.11766/trxb201907170370
CHEN Haixia,HUANG Zongsheng,ZHAO Mingwei,LI Zuguo,LIU Yifu,ZHANG Lixin,YANG Chun,YANG Zhengrong,ZHANG Yuanbo.Four Species of Herbs in Karst Areas and Their Adaptabilities to the Karst Matrices[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,2020,57(4):1017-1031. DOI:10.11766/trxb201907170370
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喀斯特地区四种草本植物及其基质的优先选择
陈海霞1, 黄宗胜2, 赵明伟2, 李祖国1,3, 刘逸夫1, 张丽欣2, 杨 春1, 杨政蓉1, 张元博4
1.贵州大学林学院;2.贵州大学建筑与城市规划学院;3.遵义市园林管理站;4.贵州大学建筑与城市规划学院贵州工商职业学院人文体育学院
摘要:
为弄清植物对喀斯特基质的优先选择,用盆栽法研究了四种植物对喀斯特不同基质的适应性。结果表明:整体上随植物生长,基质理化性质除钾含量降低外,其他均增加;发芽率和存活率以石灰土、<1 mm砂、<1mm砂+石灰土最高,碎石、碎石+枯落物最低,白三叶草发芽率最高、狗牙根存活率最高;株数、株高、盖度以石灰土、<1mm砂、<1mm砂+枯落物高而碎石、碎石+枯落物低,且盖度均呈升高趋势;生物量和叶绿素含量狗牙根和白三叶草高而芒草和高羊茅较低,生物量以石灰土、<1mm砂、<1mm砂+枯落物高而碎石、碎石+枯落物低,叶绿素含量以<1mm砂+石灰土、石灰土+1mm~5mm砂高而碎石低;δ13C芒草和狗牙根高而白三叶草和高羊茅低,且δ13C与植物及生长基质有关。综上,四种植物对石灰土、<1mm砂、<1mm砂+枯落物适应性好,对碎石、碎石+枯落物适应性差;狗牙根和芒草适应性最强,白三叶草次之,高羊茅最差,喀斯特生态修复可优先选择芒草、狗牙根。
关键词:  喀斯特  草本植物  基质  适应性  生态恢复
基金项目:?国家自然科学基金项目(31560187,51868008,51987187)
Four Species of Herbs in Karst Areas and Their Adaptabilities to the Karst Matrices
CHEN Haixia1, HUANG Zongsheng2, ZHAO Mingwei2, LI Zuguo1,3, LIU Yifu1, ZHANG Lixin2, YANG Chun1, YANG Zhengrong1, ZHANG Yuanbo2,4
1.Foresry College of Guizhou University;2.City Plan and Architecture College of Guizhou University;3.Zunyi Garden Management Station;4.College of Humanities and Physical Education, Guizhou Technology and Business Institute
Abstract:
【Objective】 This paper is aimed to find out priority of plants in adaptability to karst matrices.【Method】Four native species of plants, Cynodon dactylon, Miscanthus sinensis, Trifolium repens and Festuca elata in the karst areas were selected for test in a pot experiment with pots packed with different matrices, separately.【Result】Results show that the karst habitat diversifies in plant growing matrix. Physico-chemical properties of the matrices as a whole improved with plants growing on and on, except for decrease in total potassium content. The plants were the highest in germination rate and survival rate in the pots of limestone soil, < 1mm sand and < 1mm sand + limestone soil and the lowest in the pots of limestone debris and limestone debris + litter, while among the four species of plants, Trifolium repens and Cynodon dactylon was the highest in germination rate and survival rate, respectively. With the plants growing on and on, the plants were higher in plant number, plant height and coverage in the pots of limestone soil, < 1mm sand, < 1mm sand + litter and lower in the pots of limestone debris and limestone debris + litter; and the plants in all the pots increased in coverage, and only Cynodon dactylon increased in number. The plants in the pots of limestone soil, < 1mm sand, litter, and < 1mm sand + litter were the highest, and the lowest in the pots of limestone debris, and limestone debris + litter in biomass, while among the plants, Cynodon dactylon and Trifolium repens were high and Miscanthus sinensis and Festuca elata were low. The plants were high in total chlorophyll in the pots of < 1mm sand, limestone soil, limestone soil + 1mm-5mm sand and < 1mm sand+ 1mm-5mm sand + limestone debris + limestone soil, and low in the pots of limestone debris, while among the plants, Trifolium repens and Cynodon dactylon were higher and Miscanthus sinensis and Festuca elata lower, and Miscanthus sinensis and Cynodon dactylon were higher in δ13C than Trifolium repens and Festuca elata. The value of δ13C in the plant is related not only to species of the plant, but also to the matrix it grew in.【Conclusion】To sum up, the plants in karst areas can grow not only in limestone soil, but also in other matrices. The four species of plants in this experiment are highly adaptable to the matrices of limestone soil, < 1mm sand, < 1mm sand + litter and limestone soil + 1mm-5mm sand, fairly adaptable to 1mm-5mm sand, litter, <1mm sand + 1mm-5mm sand + limestone debris + litter, limestone soil + 1mm-5mm sand + litter, <1mm sand + limestone soil + litter and 1mm-5mm sand + litter, and barely adaptable to limestone debris and limestone debris + litter, and Cynodon dactylon and Miscanthus sinensis are more adaptable than Trifolium repens, and Festuca elata. Therefore, Cynodon dactylon and Miscanthus sinensis can be selected preferentially as pioneer plant for ecological restoration in karst areas. The extension from studies on the single soil matrix to studies on plant growing matrices of karst areas helps broadens the research theory and perspective, which is of great significance to ecological vegetation restoration in karst areas.
Key words:  Karst  Herb plants  Matrix  Adaptability  Ecological restoration