引用本文:田育天,李湘伟,谢新乔,孙 华,杨继周,林云红,戴 勋,胡保文,孙维侠,史学正,沈 晨.云南典型植烟土壤通气孔隙及其主控因素研究[J].土壤学报,2020,57(6):1430-1438. DOI:10.11766/trxb201907240386
TIAN Yutian,LI Xiangwei,XIE Xinqiao,SUN Hua,YANG Jizhou,LIN Yunhong,DAI Xun,HU Baowen,SUN Weixia,SHI Xuezheng,SHEN Chen.Soil AerationPorosity in Typical Tobacco-planting Soils and Its Main Controlling Factors in Typical Tobacco-planting Soilin Yunnan Province, China[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,2020,57(6):1430-1438. DOI:10.11766/trxb201907240386
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云南典型植烟土壤通气孔隙及其主控因素研究
田育天1, 李湘伟1, 谢新乔1, 孙 华2, 杨继周1, 林云红1, 戴 勋1, 胡保文1, 孙维侠3, 史学正3, 沈 晨3
1.红塔烟草(集团)有限责任公司;2.玉溪市烟草公司峨山县分公司;3.土壤与农业可持续发展国家重点实验室(中国科学院南京土壤研究所)
摘要:
植烟土壤通气性对于烤烟生长发育和品质提升具有重要意义。了解云南典型植烟区土壤通气性质,研究植烟土壤通气孔隙的物理适宜性,探讨影响植烟土壤孔隙度的关键因子。以云南省玉溪市华宁县青龙镇、宁州镇和楚雄市子午镇的典型植烟区土壤为研究对象,按照耕作层和犁底层分别采集典型植烟区土壤样品,分析土壤基本理化性质,并利用沙箱法测定土壤通气孔隙,对土壤理化性质与通气孔隙进行方差分析和相关分析,通过传递函数建立土壤通气孔隙的预估模型。三个典型植烟区土壤质地均以黏壤土为主,占总样品数的40%左右,壤土次之;土壤容重均值均介于1.3~1.5g•cm-3之间,适宜烟叶生长;土壤有机质含量较高,供氮能力强,可满足烤烟生长养分需求;土壤通气孔隙均值在5.9%~15.1%之间,整个研究区域土壤通气孔隙总体偏低,且不同区域空间差异较大。相关分析结果表明,土壤通气孔隙主要受土壤中粉粒和黏粒含量影响,与粉粒含量呈极显著正相关,而与黏粒含量呈显著负相关,因此可根据粉粒和黏粒含量对土壤通气孔隙进行粗略预测。植烟区应尽可能选择壤土或砂质壤土,以有效维持植烟土壤的通气性,达到提升烟叶品质的目的。
关键词:  植烟土壤  通气孔隙  主控因素  云南烟区
基金项目:红塔烟草(集团)有限公司科技项目(HT2016-6221)
Soil AerationPorosity in Typical Tobacco-planting Soils and Its Main Controlling Factors in Typical Tobacco-planting Soilin Yunnan Province, China
TIAN Yutian1, LI Xiangwei1, XIE Xinqiao1, SUN Hua2, YANG Jizhou1, LIN Yunhong1, DAI Xun1, HU Baowen1, SUN Weixia3, SHI Xuezheng3, SHEN Chen3
1.Hongta tobacco (group) co LTD;2.Eshan branch of Yuxi tobacco co LTD;3.State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture , Institute of Soil Science , Chinese Academy of Sciences
Abstract:
Soil air capacity is very important to growth and quality of tobacco. In soils poor in air capacity, tobacco has its leaves expanding slowly at its early growth stage and getting thickened and inadequately expanded at its late growth stage because of continuous nitrogenrelease from the soil, thus seriously affecting quality and flavor of its flue-cured leaves. 【Objective】 This study was oriented toinvestigate soil air capacity of the tobacco-planting areas typical of Yunnan Province, and explore relationshipof soilaeration porosity and soil physical properties with tobacco growth and main factors influencing soilaerationporosity so as to find effective ways to improve quality and yield of the tobacco in Yunnan Province.【Method】For this study, field experiments were laid out in three tobacco planting areastypical of Yunnan Province, i.e. in QinglongTown, NingzhouTown of Huaning County, YuxiCity and ZiwuTown in ChuxiongCity. A total of 38 soil samples were collected from the topsoil and subsoil layers of the experimental tobacco fields for analysis of basic physico-chemical properties, including soil texture, soil bulk density,soil organic matter(SOM) and total nitrogen(TN) contents,pH and so on. Soilaeration porosity of the soil samples was measured with the sand–kaolin box method. Variance analysis and correlation analysis were performed of the obtained data to explore relationshipsof soil aerationporosity with soil physico-chemicalproperties. In the end, a soil aerationporosity prediction model was established based on transfer function of the soil physico- chemicalproperties.【Results】Results show that in line withthe USDA standard for soil texture classification, the soil samples collected from the three areas were dominantly of clayey loam in soil texture, making up about 40% of the total, then of loam and the least of silty loam, which accounted only for 7.9% of the total; bulkdensity of the soils in the three areasvaried from 1.3 to 1.5g• cm-2, a suitable range for tobacco growth in Yunnan Province; soil organic matter (SOM)content and soil nitrogen supply capacity were high enough to meet the nutrient needs of tobacco for growth and to ensure quality and yield of the crop;and soil aeration porosity was found in the range of 5.9%-15.1%, being on the low side as whole for the areas and varied quite much spatially between areas, with the one in Qinlong Town being the highest, at about 15.1%, which was followed by the one in Ningzhou Town and then the one in Ziwu Town, the lowest at about 9.4%, which is obviously inadequate to meet the need for cultivation of high quality tobacco.Correlation analysis shows that aeration porosity in tobacco-planting soils is mainly affected by silt and clay contents and ultra-significantly and positively related to silt content and negatively to clay content. Consequently, soil aeration porosity can be roughly estimated based on silt and clay contents in the soil.【Conclusion】The soils in the tobacco planting areas of Yunnan are mainly of loam and clayey loam in texture, and their soil bulk densities and nutrient contents are suitable for growth of flue-cured tobacco. But their soil aeration porosities are apparently inadequate for healthy growth and flavor development of tobacco.Soil aeration porosity is significantly related to silt and clay contents in the soil. Therefore, it is recommended that tobacco should be cultivation in soils, loam or sandy loam in texture, where high soil air capacity is available for healthy growth of quality tobacco. The findings in this study may serve as reference for local governments in zoning for cultivation of flue-cured tobacco.
Key words:  Tobacco-planting soils  Soil aerationporosity  Main controlling factors  Tobacco Areas of Yunnan Province