引用本文:严 露,林朝君,王 欣,彭 渤,谭长银,章新平.有机肥及复配硫酸盐对土壤-水稻系统砷镉有效性的调控[J].土壤学报,2020,57(3):667-679. DOI:10.11766/trxb201907250387
YAN Lu,LIN Zhaojun,WANG Xin,PENG Bo,TAN Changyin,ZHANG Xinping.Effects of Organic Manure Fertilizers and Its Amendment of Sulfates on Availability of Arsenic and Cadmium in Soil-Rice System[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,2020,57(3):667-679. DOI:10.11766/trxb201907250387
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有机肥及复配硫酸盐对土壤-水稻系统砷镉有效性的调控
严露1,2, 林朝君1,2, 王欣1,2, 彭渤1,2, 谭长银1,2, 章新平1,2
1.湖南师范大学资源与环境科学学院;2.湖南师范大学环境重金属污染机理及生态修复重点实验室
摘要:
探索了有机肥(OF)及其与硫酸盐复配(SOF)对砷/镉(As/Cd)复合污染水稻土As/Cd水溶性、作物有效性和赋存形态转化的影响。结果表明,OF处理使土壤孔隙水As(Ⅲ)浓度在淹水前10周内下降明显,但使孔隙水Cd显著增加,使土壤固相As/Cd均向生物有效性较高的赋存形态转化;复配硫酸盐对有机肥所引起的土壤As/Cd水溶性变化和固相赋存形态转化不能产生显著逆转作用,但SO42-向S2-的还原转化使土壤硫化砷较对照(CK,不施有机肥或硫酸盐)增加了71%。水稻盆栽试验进一步显示,OF处理使水稻幼苗茎叶和根部As积累量降低44%~47%,但使成熟期水稻糙米总As和白米无机As含量分别增加22%和12%;同时,OF处理显著增加了水稻幼苗Cd累积量并使糙米Cd含量达到CK的1.2倍。复配硫酸盐可明显逆转有机肥所引起的水稻糙米As含量升高,但对糙米Cd积累和白米无机As浓度的增加不能产生显著减控作用。综上,向As/Cd污染稻田中施用有机肥对稻米质量安全所产生的潜在威胁值得引起高度关注。
关键词:  有机肥  硫酸盐  糙米  砷镉复合污染
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41977108)、湖湘青年英才支持计划项目(2017RS3032)和湖南省国内一流培育学科(地理学-5010002)资助
Effects of Organic Manure Fertilizers and Its Amendment of Sulfates on Availability of Arsenic and Cadmium in Soil-Rice System
Yan Lu1,2, Lin Zhaojun1,2, Wang Xin1,2, Peng Bo1,2, Tan Changyin1,2, Zhang Xinping1,2
1.College of Resources and Environmental Science, Hunan Normal University;2.Key Laboratory of Environmental Heavy-Metal Contamination and Ecological Remediation
Abstract:
【Objective】 Aiming at the common problem of arsenic (As) /cadmium (Cd) pollution and declining soil fertility in paddy fields in South China, organic manure is used to improve soil fertility, while dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is amended as metabolic substrate for sulfate-reducing bacteria to promote reduction of SO42- into S2- and subsequent formation of As/Cd sulfide deposit in flooded soil. This way of thinking may provide a useful solution to the common problem.【Method】 A systematic research was carried out to analyze effects of organic manure (OF) and amendment of sulfate (SOF) on solubility, bioavailability and chemical conversion of As and Cd in As/Cd compound polluted paddy soil.【Result】 Treatment OF (application of organic manure) reduced the concentration of As(III) in soil porewater by 9%~64% and increased that of Cd in porewater by 4~12 times during the first 10 weeks of flooding, as compared to CK. Sequencing extraction of solid As/Cd by fraction shows that Treatment OF increased the content of amorphous hydrous Fe oxides-bonded As, low in environmental stability, and specifically-sorbed As by 4%~5% and reduced soil Fe oxide-Cd and carbonate-Cd by 55% and 11%, respectively. Treatment SOF (application of organic manure amended with sulphate) did not have much effect of reversing solubility and transformation of soil As/Cd between solid fractions, but did promote reduction of SO42- into S2- that raised the content of soil arsenic sulfite by 71%. The pot experiments done in the research show that Treatment OF reduced As accumulation in the stems and roots of rice seedlings by 44%~ 47%, but increased total As in brown rice and inorganic As in white rice at the mature stage by 22% and 12%, respectively. And Treatment OF significantly enhanced Cd accumulation in rice seedlings and multiplied Cd content in brown rice Cd by 1.2 times. Treatment SOF significantly reversed the trend of Treatment OF increasing As content in brown rice, but did not have much effects on Cd accumulation in brown rice and increase in inorganic As in white rice.【Conclusion】 Application of organic manure has a serious risk of increasing As/Cd accumulation in rice, and even amendment of sulfate has only some mild effect of controlling bioavailability of soil As/Cd. Therefore, the potential threat of application of organic manure to quality and security of rice cultivated in As/Cd contaminated paddy fields has aroused great concerns.
Key words:  Organic manure  Sulfate  Brown rice  Arsenic and cadmium compound pollution