引用本文:郭成士,马东豪,张丛志,张佳宝,蔡太义,陈 林,周桂香.典型砂姜黑土黑色物质提取方法及成份研究[J].土壤学报,2021,58(2):421-432. DOI:10.11766/trxb201909020464
GUO Chengshi,MA Donghao,ZHANG Congzhi,ZHANG Jiabao,CAI Taiyi,CHEN Lin,ZHOU Guixiang.Extraction Method and Composition of Black Matter in Typical Shajiang Calci-Aquic Vertisols in China[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,2021,58(2):421-432. DOI:10.11766/trxb201909020464
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典型砂姜黑土黑色物质提取方法及成份研究
郭成士1,2, 马东豪1, 张丛志1, 张佳宝1, 蔡太义1,3, 陈 林1, 周桂香1
1.土壤与农业可持续发展国家重点实验室(中国科学院南京土壤研究所), 南京 210008;2.中国科学院大学, 北京 100049;3.河南理工大学测绘与国土信息工程学院, 河南焦作 454000
摘要:
土壤颜色是反映土壤发生、分类及肥力特征的一项重要物理指标。黑色土壤一般有较高的有机质含量,但砂姜黑土是低有机质含量的黑色土壤典型代表。以黄淮海平原3种典型砂姜黑土为研究对象,分别采用添加六偏磷酸钠分散剂后振荡并结合多层次超声处理(HP)、添加碳酸钠分散剂后振荡并结合多层次超声处理(SC)和仅超声波处理(US)等3种方法分散土壤,然后依次提取土壤浅色组分(颗粒态有机质(POM)、白(W)、浅白(LW))和黑色组分(浅黑(LB)、黑(B)、深黑(DB)),旨在建立土壤黑色物质的有效提取方法。结果表明,HP方法提取黑色物质(LB、B和DB)的量最多,且提取量与土壤黑度间相关性最显著(P<0.01),是提取砂姜黑土黑色物质的最佳方法。不同提取组分中的土壤黑度与有机质含量无明显相关性,砂姜黑土的显色主要取决于由蒙皂石吸附有机质形成的黑色纳米有机-无机复合体,受有机质含量的直接影响相对较小。本研究提出了一种砂姜黑土黑色物质提取方法,并初步明确了黑色物质组成特征,可为揭示砂姜黑土有机质形成与累积机制提供参考。
关键词:  土壤黑色物质  有机质含量  有机-无机复合体  纳米颗粒  蒙皂石
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFD0300802)和国家自然科学基金项目(41671228,41671225)资助。
Extraction Method and Composition of Black Matter in Typical Shajiang Calci-Aquic Vertisols in China
GUO Chengshi1,2, MA Donghao1, ZHANG Congzhi1, ZHANG Jiabao1, CAI Taiyi1,3, CHEN Lin1, ZHOU Guixiang1
1.State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China;2.University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China;3.School of Surveying and Land Information Engineering, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo, Henan 454000, China
Abstract:
[Objective] Color of a soil is an important physical indicator characterizing genesis, classification and fertility of the soil. Soils black in color are generally high in organic matter content, but the Shajiang black soil (Calci-Aquic (SCA) Vertisols) in China is a typical soil, dark in color but low in organic matter content. This study aims to establish an effective method for extracting the black color matter from the SCA Vertisols, to explore their compositions and characteristics, so as to expose how organic matter forms and accumulates in the soil. [Methods] In this paper, soil samples were collected from the topsoil layers (0-40 cm) and black soil layers (40-70 cm) of three typical SCA Vertisols of the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain in China and processed with three physical methods, separately, for fractionation by color. The three physical methods includes 1) (HP) to treat prepare the sample with hexametaphosphate (HMP) and have it subjected to oscillation and multi-level sonication; 2) (SC) to treat the sample with sodium carbonate solution and have it subjected to oscillation and multi-level sonication; and 3)(US)to treat the sample with ultrasound only for dispersion. And for fractionation by color, six fractions, that is, POM, White and Light White (white group) and Light Black, Black and Deep black (dark group), were set up. After the soil sample was fractionated, each fraction was analyzed for blackness, organic matter content, particle size distribution and mineral composition with a spectrophotometer, TOC instrument, nano-laser particle size analyzer and X-ray diffractometer separately. [Results] Blackness of the soil had nothing to do with organic matter content, regardless of treatment method, but much with amount of anyone of the dark fractions (Light Black, Black and Deep black). Among the three methods, the HP method got the largest dark fractions, which were significantly related to blackness (P<0.01) of the soil. Particles of organic-inorganic complexes <100 nm amounted to more than 50% of the total dark fractions (TDF), and composed mostly of Fraction DB and B, accounting for over 90%. The content of <100nm organic-inorganic complexes was significantly and positively related to blackness (P<0.01) of the soil, while the content of >100 nm organic-inorganic complexes was negatively related, in all the soil samples, though from different sampling sites. Particles of organic-inorganic complexes <100 nm amounted to 18.4-60.4 g·kg-1 in the black soil layer, significantly higher than that (2.4-15.2 g·kg-1) in the topsoil layer in all the three SCA vertisols, and content of organic-inorganic complexes <100 nm in particle size was also significantly and positively related to blackness (R2=0.971) of the soil.[Conclusion] The HP method is the best one for extracting fractionation of SCA Vertisols by color. Soil color depends mainly on content of black nano-organic-inorganic complexes formed out of adsorption of organic matter by smectite in the SCA Vertisols rather than organic matter content, which has relatively less direct impact.
Key words:  Soil black matter  Organic matter content  Organic-inorganic complex  Nano-particle  Smectite