引用本文:都江雪,柳开楼,黄 晶,韩天富,王远鹏,李冬初,李亚贞,马常宝,薛彦东,张会民.中国稻田土壤有效磷时空演变特征及其对磷平衡的响应[J].土壤学报,2021,58(2):476-486. DOI:10.11766/trxb201911040381
DU Jiangxue,LIU Kailou,HUANG Jing,HAN Tianfu,WANG Yuanpeng,LI Dongchu,LI Yazhen,MA Changbao,XUE Yandong,ZHANG Huimin.Spatio-temporal Evolution Characteristics of Soil Available Phosphorus and Its Response to Phosphorus Balance in Paddy Soil in China[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,2021,58(2):476-486. DOI:10.11766/trxb201911040381
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中国稻田土壤有效磷时空演变特征及其对磷平衡的响应
都江雪1, 柳开楼1,2, 黄 晶1,3, 韩天富1, 王远鹏1, 李冬初1,3, 李亚贞2, 马常宝4, 薛彦东4, 张会民1,3
1.中国农业科学院农业资源与农业区划研究所/耕地培育技术国家工程实验室, 北京 100081;2.江西省红壤研究所, 国家红壤改良工程技术研究中心, 南昌 330046;3.中国农业科学院祁阳农田生态系统国家野外试验站, 湖南祁阳 426182;4.农业农村部耕地质量监测保护中心, 北京 100125
摘要:
以农业农村部始于1988年的全国稻田土壤监测数据库为基础,将稻作区划分为东北、长江三角洲(简称“长三角”)、长江中游、华南和西南五个区域,分析近30 a各稻作区土壤有效磷含量、磷肥回收率及农学效率和磷素的表观平衡,揭示各区域间稻田土壤磷素时间演变和空间差异特征,为稻田土壤磷素科学管理提供理论依据。结果表明,全国主要稻作区土壤有效磷含量平均为21.18 mg·kg-1,各区域间稻田土壤有效磷含量存在显著差异,其中华南区最高(33.71 mg·kg-1),西南区最低(12.49 mg·kg-1)。除长江中游外,其他稻作区土壤有效磷含量均随施肥年限的延长而增加,全国平均年增速为0.36 mg·kg-1。随施肥年限的延长,各区域均表现为磷素盈余状态,全国土壤磷素盈余量年均为35.03 kg·hm-2,其中华南区磷素盈余速率最高(51.31 kg·hm-2·a-1)。土壤有效磷含量与磷素累积盈余量呈显著正相关关系(P<0.05),平均每盈余磷素100 kg·hm-2,土壤有效磷含量增加0.82 mg·kg-1。各稻作区磷肥回收率和磷肥农学效率均随施肥年限的延长而显著升高(P<0.05),其中以西南区最高,分别为35.92%和69.02 kg·kg-1。近30 a来,各稻作区土壤有效磷含量和磷素累积盈余量随施肥年限的延长而显著升高,土壤磷肥回收率和农学效率表现出区域差异,应根据当地磷素平衡状况适当调整施磷制度,西南区应增施磷肥,保证作物的正常磷素需求;华南区可减少磷肥施用量,提高磷素利用率,降低面源污染风险。
关键词:  稻田  有效磷  磷肥回收率  磷肥农学效率  磷平衡
基金项目:国家重点研发计划重点专项(2016YFD0300901)和中央级公益性科研院所基本科研业务费专项(1610132019035,1610132020023)资助
Spatio-temporal Evolution Characteristics of Soil Available Phosphorus and Its Response to Phosphorus Balance in Paddy Soil in China
DU Jiangxue1, LIU Kailou1,2, HUANG Jing1,3, HAN Tianfu1, WANG Yuanpeng1, LI Dongchu1,3, LI Yazhen2, MA Changbao4, XUE Yandong4, ZHANG Huimin1,3
1.Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences/National Engineering Laboratory for Improving Quality of Arable Land, Beijing 100081, China;2.Jiangxi Institute of Red Soil/National Engineering and Technology Research Center for Red Soil Improvement, Nanchang 330046, China;3.National Observation Station of Qiyang Agri-ecology System, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, CAAS, Qiyang, Hunan 426182, China;4.Center of Cultivated Land Quality Monitoring and Protection, Ministry of Agricultural and Rural Affairs, Beijing 100125, China
Abstract:
[Objective] In the recent 30 years, rice has been cultivated extensively in China, involving a great variety of soil types, farming systems and fertilization methods. No matter where it is cultivated, soil phosphorus(P)seems to be a major factor limiting rice production due to its strong P adsorption and fixation capacity of the soil colloids in the paddy fields and low phosphate fertilizer utilization rate of the crop, which consequently leads to accumulation of the element in the soil. The objective of this study was to evaluate utilization and balance of P in the five major rice production regions of the country, which may provide certain scientific bases for recommending rational application of phosphate fertilizer by regions.[Method] Based on the long-term field experiments, starting from 1988, in the five major rice growing regions(i.e. Northeast of China(NE), Yangtze River Delta (YRD), Middle Reaches of the Yangtze River (MYR), South of China (SC) and Southwest of China (SW)), which are significantly different in soil and climate, data were cited from a total of 130 paddy soil monitoring sites scattered in the five regions for comparison and summarization. The data included available P content, and P utilization efficiency, P recovery rate, P agronomic efficiency and soil P balance.[Result] Results show significant differences between the regions in soil available P content. SC was the highest (33.71 mg·kg-1) and SW the lowest (12.49 mg·kg-1). The average content of soil available P of the country was 21.18 mg kg-1, and grew at a rate of 0.36 mg·kg-1·a-1. Soil available P content increased significantly with the cultivation going on in all the regions, expect in MYR. All the five regions gained in soil phosphate, with SC being the highest in P surplus. The average annual soil phosphate surplus of the country was 35.03 kg·hm-2 that accounted for 44.16% of the average phosphate fertilizer input. Moreover, a significant positive relationship was observed between soil available P content and the cumulative P surplus (P<0.05). With every 100 kg·hm-2 increment in average P surplus, soil available P content increased by 0.82 mg·kg-1. P recovery rate and agronomic efficiency also significantly increased at a varying in rate with the farming going on in all the five regions, and the highest rates were observed in SW, being 35.92% and 69.02 kg·kg-1, respectively.[Conclusion] Affected by the 30-year long-term fertilization, soil available P content and cumulative P surplus has increased significantly in all the regions with the rice cultivation going on. However, the variation of P recovery rate and P agronomic efficiency differs from region to region. From all the findings in this study, it is concluded that the fertilization system for each region should be modified in the light of the budgeting of soil phosphorus of the respective locality. For example, in Southwest China, more phosphate fertilizer, especially organic fertilizer should be applied to ensure the normal phosphate supply to meet the demand of the rice crop, while in South China, P fertilization should be reduced in rate, but improved in P utilization efficiency, so as to mitigate the risk of P non-point source pollution.
Key words:  Paddy soil  Available phosphorus  Phosphorus recovery rate  Phosphorus agronomic efficiency  Phosphorus balance