引用本文:袁婷婷,赵骞,董艳.阿魏酸胁迫下间作对蚕豆枯萎病发生和根系组织结构的影响[J].土壤学报,2021,58(4):1060-1071. DOI:10.11766/trxb201912300613
YUAN Tingting,ZHAO Qian,DONG Yan.Effects of Intercropping on Fusarium Wilt Infection and Root Tissue Structure under Ferulic Acid Stress[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,2021,58(4):1060-1071. DOI:10.11766/trxb201912300613
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阿魏酸胁迫下间作对蚕豆枯萎病发生和根系组织结构的影响
袁婷婷, 赵骞, 董艳
云南农业大学资源与环境学院, 昆明 650201
摘要:
为明确酚酸类自毒物质阿魏酸在蚕豆连作障碍形成中的作用,研究其促进蚕豆枯萎病发生的组织病理学机制,揭示小麦蚕豆间作对阿魏酸胁迫的缓解效应。以蚕豆为试材,研究尖孢镰刀菌(Fusarium oxysporum f.sp.fabae,FOF)与不同浓度(0、50、100、200 mg·L-1)阿魏酸双重胁迫下,小麦蚕豆间作对蚕豆枯萎病发生、根系细胞壁降解酶(果胶酶、纤维素酶、蛋白酶和淀粉酶)活性、木质素含量、胼胝质沉积和根系超微结构的影响。结果表明:与不添加阿魏酸的对照相比,阿魏酸不同浓度处理均显著增加了蚕豆枯萎病的发病率、病情指数和细胞壁水解酶活性,显著提高了木质素含量和胼胝质沉积,使细胞结构扭曲变形,胞内物质外泄,表明阿魏酸与尖孢镰刀菌协同作用加剧了蚕豆连作障碍的发生。与单作相比,不同浓度阿魏酸胁迫下,间作均显著降低蚕豆枯萎病和病情指数;显著降低根系果胶酶、纤维素酶、蛋白酶和淀粉酶活性;减少胼胝质沉积,保证营养物质的正常运输,缓解细胞结构的变形。根系细胞膜、细胞核、细胞器等胞内物质受损较单作轻,有效阻止尖孢镰刀菌进一步入侵蚕豆,减轻枯萎病危害,保证蚕豆的正常生长。上述结果表明,阿魏酸胁迫下小麦与蚕豆间作能提高蚕豆对FOF侵染的抗性,因此,利用非寄主作物小麦与蚕豆间作是缓解蚕豆连作障碍的有效措施。
关键词:  蚕豆  阿魏酸  尖孢镰刀菌  间作  组织结构抗性
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(31860596,31560586)资助
Effects of Intercropping on Fusarium Wilt Infection and Root Tissue Structure under Ferulic Acid Stress
YUAN Tingting, ZHAO Qian, DONG Yan
College of Resources and Environment, Yunnan Agricultural University, Kunming 650201, China
Abstract:
[Objective] To explore roles of ferulic acid, a phenolic-acid-like autotoxic substance, in occurrence of a hazard to monocropping of faba bean, mechanism of ferulic acid promoting faba bean Fusarium wilt and effects of interplanting of wheat with faba bean alleviating ferulic acid stress, a field experiment was carried out.[Method] In the experiment faba bean was interplanted with wheat. Effects of the interplanting were investigated on occurrence of fusarium wilt, activities of root cell wall degrading enzymes (pectinase, cellulase, protease and amylase), lignin content, callose deposition and root ultrastructure in the presence of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. fabae (FOF) and under the stress of ferulic acid varying in concentration (0, 50, 100 and 200 mg·L-1).[Result] Results show that in the monocropping group, compared with the controls (without ferulic acid stress), all the ferulic acid treatments, regardless of concentration, significantly increased incidence and index of the disease, activities of the cell wall degrading enzymes, lignin content and callose deposition, thus leading to distortion of cell structure, leakage of intracellular substances and worsening of the resistance of root tissue structure, which indicates that the synergistic effect of ferulic acid and the pathogen aggravated the hazard to monocropping of faba bean., while compared with the monocropping treatments, the interplanting treatments, though under the stress of 0-200 mg·L-1 ferulic acid, decreased incidence of the disease by 0.0%-31.7%, disease index by 28.3%-46.9%, root pectinase activity by 17.9%-60.1%, cellulase activity by 1.2%-28.2%, protease activity by 5.6%-60.3% and amylase activity by 16.8%-65.5%, but increased lignin content by 9.8%-57.7%, and reduced callose deposition, thus ensuring normal transportation of nutrients and alleviating deformation of cell structure. Intracellular substances of root cells, like membrane, nucleus and organelle, of the faba plants in the interplanting treatments were less damaged. Obviously the plants effectively prevented further invasion of FOF, reduced the damage of Fusarium wilt, and ensured normal growth of faba bean. The field experiment demonstrates that wheat and interplanting of faba bean with wheat can significantly reduce the damage of Fusarium wilt to the bean crop.[Conclusion] All the findings in this experiment suugest that faba been interplanted with wheat can improve the resistance of faba against FOF under ferulic acid sterss. Therefore, the practice of interplanting can be adopted as an effective strategy for management of Fusarium wilt of faba bean.
Key words:  Faba bean  Ferulic acid  Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. fabae  Interplanting  Tissue structure resistance