引用本文:韦中,沈宗专,杨天杰,王孝芳,李荣,徐阳春,沈其荣.从抑病土壤到根际免疫:概念提出与发展思考[J].土壤学报,2021,58(4):814-824. DOI:10.11766/trxb202003230038
WEI Zhong,SHEN Zongzhuan,YANG Tianjie,WANG Xiaofang,LI Rong,XU Yangchun,SHEN Qirong.From Suppressive Soil to Rhizosphere Immunity: Towards an Ecosystem Thinking for Soil-borne Pathogen Control[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,2021,58(4):814-824. DOI:10.11766/trxb202003230038
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从抑病土壤到根际免疫:概念提出与发展思考
韦中, 沈宗专, 杨天杰, 王孝芳, 李荣, 徐阳春, 沈其荣
江苏省固体有机废弃物资源化高技术研究重点实验室, 作物免疫学重点实验室, 国家有机类肥料工程技术研究中心, 江苏省有机固体废弃物资源化协同创新中心, 南京农业大学资源与环境科学学院, 南京 210095
摘要:
作物土传病害已经成为集约化农业可持续发展中的瓶颈,在粮食安全、资源高效和生态健康多目标协同发展的指导思想下,系统的绿色防控理论和技术体系构建是破解该难题的重要前提。作为植物-土壤互作的热点区域,根际栖息着较土体土壤更丰富的微生物群落,是土传病原物入侵作物根系的必经之路。根际微生态系统中的植物、土壤、微生物组和病原物之间的交互作用必然影响着植物健康。笔者将根际微生态系统抵御土传病原物入侵的现象和能力,称之为“根际免疫”。本文重点梳理根际免疫概念形成的4个重要阶段:(1)抑病土壤概念的提出与发展;(2)抑病微生物筛选与作用机制;(3)抑病土壤核心微生物组及互作机制;(4)根际免疫概念的形成与发展思考。最后从关注根际微生态、注重学科交叉和系统揭示根际免疫机制三方面进行展望,以期为提升土壤-植物系统健康和实现农业可持续发展提供理论依据和技术支撑。
关键词:  土传病害  抑病土壤  根际  微生物组  根际免疫
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(42090060,41922053,42007025和42007038)和国家重点研发计划项目(2018YFD1000800)资助
From Suppressive Soil to Rhizosphere Immunity: Towards an Ecosystem Thinking for Soil-borne Pathogen Control
WEI Zhong, SHEN Zongzhuan, YANG Tianjie, WANG Xiaofang, LI Rong, XU Yangchun, SHEN Qirong
Jiangsu Provincial Key Lab for Organic Solid Waste Utilization, Key Laboratory of Plant Immunity, National Engineering Research Center for Organic-based Fertilizers, Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center for Solid Organic Waste Resource Utilization, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China
Abstract:
Soil-borne diseases have become a limiting factor for the development of sustainable intensive agriculture. To coordinate the integrative development of food security, resource efficiency, and ecological health, the construction of a systematic theory and integrated approach is vital for sustainably controlling soil-borne pathogens. As a hotspot where plants and soil closely interact, the rhizosphere inhabits diverse microbiomes. Since the rhizosphere is the only way for soil-borne pathogens to penetrate plant roots, interactions between soil, plants, microorganisms, and plant-pathogens harbored in the rhizosphere could affect pathogen invasion and plant health. Recently, the ability of the rhizosphere to act against the invasion of soil-borne pathogens was defined as "rhizosphere immunity". In this review, we introduced this concept in four important stages:1) the proposal and development of the concept of disease-suppressive soil, 2) the isolation of beneficial microorganisms and their mechanisms in controlling diseases, 3) the deciphering of the structure and function of core microbiomes in disease-suppressive soil, and 4) proposal and development of the concept rhizosphere immunity. Firstly, it was observed that soil microorganisms together with soil abiotic factors determine the ability of soil suppressiveness. Also, previous researchers isolated the key microorganisms and uncovered the underlying mechanisms in disease suppression. Secondly, typical mechanisms including antagonism, nutritional competition, parasitism, predation, induced systemic resistance, and interference of pathogenic signals of pathogenic microorganisms were revealed. In addition to beneficial fungi and bacteria, bacteriophages and protists have also been applied to control pathogens. Despite soil microorganisms playing an important role in disease suppression, application of a single beneficial biocontrol agent into the field usually did not achieve the goal of disease suppression because of its weak colonization ability in the rhizosphere. Therefore, deciphering the composition and functional characteristics of core microorganisms involved in disease suppression has become the hotspot during the past ten years. Thirdly, the core microbial groups and functional genes associated with disease suppression and the approaches to decipher the core microbiomes were identified. Given that the interactions between core microbiomes or with the pathogens are still difficult to verify in natural soil, we reviewed the use of synthetic microbial communities to overcome this limitation. Finally, the background of the concept of "rhizosphere immunity" was introduced. We expounded on the four core functions of rhizosphere immunity:prevention, recognition, response, and homeostasis. Consequently, we used the application of bio-organic fertilizer as an example to demonstrate that rhizosphere immunity could be improved. In the perspective and conclusion section, we appeal with researchers to pay more attention to the belowground micro-ecology, embrace interdisciplinarity, and underly the key mechanisms of rhizosphere immunity. This review could provide a theoretical basis and technical support for improving the health of the soil-plant system and in achieving the aims of sustainable development of modern agriculture and food security.
Key words:  Soil-borne disease  Disease-suppressive soil  Rhizosphere  Microbiome  Rhizosphere immunity