引用本文:韦中,宋宇琦,熊武,徐阳春,沈其荣.土壤原生动物——研究方法及其在土传病害防控中的作用[J].土壤学报,2021,58(1):14-22. DOI:10.11766/trxb202002010039
WEI Zhong,SONG Yuqi,XIONG Wu,XU Yangchun,SHEN Qirong.Soil Protozoa: Research Methods and Roles in the Biocontrol of Soil-Borne Diseases[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,2021,58(1):14-22. DOI:10.11766/trxb202002010039
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土壤原生动物——研究方法及其在土传病害防控中的作用
韦中, 宋宇琦, 熊武, 徐阳春, 沈其荣
江苏省固体有机废弃物资源化高技术研究重点实验室, 作物免疫学重点实验室, 国家有机类肥料工程技术研究中心, 江苏省有机固体废弃物资源化协同创新中心, 南京农业大学资源与环境科学学院, 南京 210095
摘要:
原生动物是原生生物的一种,是土壤食物网中的消费者,能捕食细菌和真菌等其他微生物。除了对土壤微生物群落和物质循环产生重要影响外,根际原生动物与细菌、真菌等土壤微生物共同组成生物网络屏障,并在抵御土传病原菌入侵作物根系的过程中发挥着重要作用。然而,相对于根际有益细菌和有益真菌,国内外关于原生动物防控土传病害的效果及作用机制的研究非常有限。本文梳理了土壤原生动物在土传病害防控中的效果、作用机制及其相关研究方法,并对未来原生动物的研究和应用作出了展望。呼吁更多学者关注土壤原生动物及其在生态系统中的功能,挖掘其在土壤健康和农业可持续发展中的重要价值。
关键词:  原生动物  土传病害  捕食  生态防控  根际微生物
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41922053)、国家重点研发计划项目(2018YFD1000800)资助
Soil Protozoa: Research Methods and Roles in the Biocontrol of Soil-Borne Diseases
WEI Zhong, SONG Yuqi, XIONG Wu, XU Yangchun, SHEN Qirong
Jiangsu Provincial Key Lab for Organic Solid Waste Utilization, Key Laboratory of Plant Immunity, National Engineering Research Center for Organic-based Fertilizers, Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center for Solid Organic Waste Resource Utilization, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, PR China
Abstract:
Protozoa are a type of protists that act as consumers in the soil food web preying on other microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi, even nematodes. Soil protozoa are known to have an important impact on soil microbial communities and elements cycling. Recent studies reveal that soil protozoa might act, together with some soil microorganisms, such as bacteria, fungi, etc. forming a biological network barrier and playing an important role in defending plant roots from invasion of soil borne pathogens. Relative to the researches on beneficial bacteria and fungi, much less have been done on effects and mechanisms of soil protozoa controlling soil-borne diseases, either abroad or at home. Therefore, this paper calls for more scholars to pay attention to and to study soil protozoa and their functions in the ecosystem, and to explore their important values in soil health and sustainable agriculture. To achieve this goal, this paper first introduces soil protozoa and their ecological functions, and especially reports on their roles in controlling soil-borne plant diseases. In the next section, this paper summarizes potential mechanisms of soil protozoa preventing and controlling soilborne diseases. 1) Soil protozoa can not only prey direct on pathogens but also secrete secondary metabolites that will inhibit growth of pathogen, thus lowering pathogen density and disease incidence; 2) Their predation of soil microorganisms could induce the preys to generate more antagonistic compounds, which could help guard them from predation and indirectly inhibit growth of pathogens; and 3) Their predation can alter the structure and function of indigenous microbial communities. For instance, the highly selective predation behavior of protozoa could form a highly competitive microbial community, thus leading to a higher inhibiting effect on invading pathogens. The traditional method of studying soil protozoa depends mainly on isolation, culture and morphological observation. With development of the modern molecular technology, the research method has changed dramatically. In order to better study protozoa in the soil food chain from multiple angles, the third section of this paper summarizes the main methods used in studying biomass, diversity, community structure, and ecological functions of soil protozoa, including culturological/morphological methods, identification with biochemical methods, modern molecular technology, and screening and counting of protozoa with flow cytometry. Although protozoa play an important role in preventing and controlling soil-borne diseases, they have just made their debut on the stage of scientific research, waiting for more in-depth researches, as compared to other soil microorganisms. Then, the last section of this paper lists some future research topics related to soil biology researchers. 1) Explore diversity and structure of the soil protozoan community and their relationships with occurrence of soil-borne diseases; 2) establish technologies for identification, isolation, and culture of crop health related protozoa; 3) investigate effects of soil protozoa and other soil organisms on crop health; and 4) strengthen the research and development of technologies for collection and exploitation of protozoan resources.
Key words:  Protozoa  Soil-borne disease  Predation  Biological control  Rhizosphere microorganism