引用本文:余小芬,杨树明,邹炳礼,解 燕,刘加红,张瑞勤,吕亚琼,蔡永占,张素华,李军营,邱学礼.菜籽油枯有机无机复混肥对烤烟产质量及养分利用率的影响[J].土壤学报,2020,57(6):1564-1575. DOI:10.11766/trxb202003060099
YU Xiaofen,YANG Shuming,ZOU Bingli,XIE Yan,LIU Jiahong,ZHANG Ruiqin,LV Yaqiong,CAI Yongzhan,ZHANG Suhua,LI Junying,QIU Xueli.Effects of Combined Application of Rapeseed-cake as Organic Manure and Chemical Fertilizer on Yield, Quality and Nutrient Use Efficiency of Flue-cured Tobacco[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,2020,57(6):1564-1575. DOI:10.11766/trxb202003060099
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菜籽油枯有机无机复混肥对烤烟产质量及养分利用率的影响
余小芬,杨树明,邹炳礼,解 燕,刘加红,张瑞勤,吕亚琼,蔡永占,张素华,李军营,邱学礼
1.云南省农业科学院农业环境资源研究所;2.云南省烟草公司曲靖市公司;3.云南省农业科学院生物技术与种质资源研究所;4.云南省烟草农业科学研究院
摘要:
探索添加300 g·kg-1和400 g·kg-1菜籽油枯制成的有机无机复混肥(以OR30和OR40表示)对烤烟生长、产质量及养分利用率的影响,为提高云南菜籽油枯资源的利用效率和提升烟叶品质提供科学依据。以烤烟品种K326为材料,采用大田试验,设置10个处理:T1,施化肥,即烟草专用复合肥 400 kg·hm-2+过磷酸钙 362.5 kg·hm-2 + 硫酸钾160 kg·hm-2(纯氮60 kg·hm-2),T2,施OR30 400 kg·hm-2(等氮);T3,施OR30 265 kg·hm-2和硝酸钾 150 kg·hm-2(等氮);T4,施OR30 225 kg·hm-2和硝酸钾 150 kg·hm-2(减氮10%);T5,施OR30 440 kg·hm-2(增氮10%);T6,施OR40 500 kg·hm-2(等氮);T7,施OR40 331.2 kg·hm-2和硝酸钾 150 kg·hm-2(等氮);T8,施OR40 281.2 kg·hm-2和硝酸钾 150 kg·hm-2(减氮10%);T9,施 OR40 550 kg·hm-2(增氮10%);T10,不施肥。结果表明,与化肥(T1)相比,T2、T3、T5、T7和T9促进烟株生长明显,叶面积和叶面积系数分别显著增加1.74%~4.51%、4.47%~19.11%;T4、T5、T7和T9的根鲜物质量、根干物质量和根体积较T1均显著增加。T2、T4、T5、T7和T9增产率为2.69%~7.46%,T2、T5和T9产值较T1分别显著提高10.99%~13.46%。T2、T4、T7和T9中部烟叶总糖、还原糖、氧化钾和水溶性氯含量升高,总氮、烟碱含量下降,烟叶化学成分更加协调。与T1相比,T2、T4、T5、T7和T9显著提高氮素表观利用率9.31%~25.17%,氮素生理利用率提高7.67%~22.32%;T2、T4和T9磷素表观利用率及生理利用率分别提高19.85%~28.05%和14.71%~21.39%;T2、T4、T5和T9分别增加钾素表观利用率及生理利用率8.55%~17.40%和9.06%~21.98%。综合分析表明,适量的油枯有机无机复混肥(T5和T9)或搭配追施硝酸钾(T4和T7)可促进烟株地上部和根部的生长,促进氮、磷、钾吸收,提高烟叶产质量。
关键词:  有机无机复混肥  品质  产量  烤烟  肥料利用率
基金项目:中国烟草总公司云南省公司科技计划项目(2019530000241033,2019530000241014)和云南省科技重点研发(农业)项目(2018BB019)资助
Effects of Combined Application of Rapeseed-cake as Organic Manure and Chemical Fertilizer on Yield, Quality and Nutrient Use Efficiency of Flue-cured Tobacco
YU Xiaofen1, YANG Shuming2,3, ZOU Bingli2,3, XIE Yan4, LIU Jiahong4, ZHANG Ruiqin4, LV Yaqiong4, CAI Yongzhan4, ZHANG Suhua5, LI Junying6, QIU Xueli2,3
1.Agricultural Resources & Environment Institute, Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences;2.Agricultural Resources &3.Environment Institute, Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences;4.Qujing Branch of Yunnan Tobacco Company;5.Biotechnology and Genetic Resources Institute, Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences;6.Yunnan Academy of Tobacco Agricultural Sciences
Abstract:
A field experiment was conducted to explore effects of combined application of organic manure (300 g·kg-1 or 400 g·kg-1 rapeseed cake) and chemical fertilizer on yield, quality and nutrient utilization efficiency of flue-cured tobacco, in an attempt to provide scientific basis for improving utilization efficiency of the rapeseed resources and tobacco quality. Using flue-cured tobacco of cultivar K326 as test material, the experiment was designed to have ten fertilization treatments, i.e. T1 (chemical fertilizer, consisting of 400 kg·hm-2 specialized tobacco fertilizer equal to 60 kg·hm-2 in N nutrient + 362.5 kg·hm-2 superphosphate +160 kg·hm-2 potassium sulfate as control), T2 (OR30 at 400 kg·hm-2, equal to T1 in N rate ), T3 (OR30 at 265 kg·hm-2, equal to T1 in N rate, and 150 kg·hm-2 potassium nitrate,) , T4 (OR30 at 225 kg·hm-2, 10% less than T1 in N rate, and 150 kg·hm-2 potassium nitrate), T5 (OR30 at 440 kg·hm-2, 10% more than T1 in N rate) , T6 (OR40 at 500 kg·hm-2, equal to T1 in N rate), T7 (OR40 at 331.2 kg·hm-2 and 150 kg·hm-2 potassium nitrate, equal to T1 in N rate) , T8 (OR40 at 281.2 kg·hm-2 and 150 kg·hm-2 potassium nitrate, 10% less than T1 in N rate) , T9 (OR40 at 550 kg·hm-2, 10% more than T1 in N rate ) and T10 (neither manure or fertilizer). Results showed that compared with treatment T1, Treatments T2, T3, T5, T7 and T9 significantly improved growth, leaf area and leaf area coefficient of the tobacco plants by 1.74% -4.51% and 4.47%-19.11%, respectively. Compared with treatment T1, Treatments T4, T5, T7 and T9 significantly increased fresh weight, dry weight and root volume of the plants; Treatments T2, T4, T5, T7 and T9 increased by 2.69%-7.46% in yield, increase rate; and Treatments T2, T5 and T9 increased significantly or by 10.99% -13.46% in output. Meanwhile, Treatments T2, T4, T7 and T9 increased contents of total sugar, reducing sugar, potassium oxide and water-soluble chlorine, and decreased the content of total nitrogen and nicotine in the middle position tobacco leaves. Compared with Treatment T1, Treatments T2, T4, T5 ,T7 and T9 were 9.31% -25.17% and 7.67%-22.32% higher to apparent and physiological N use efficiency, respectively; Treatments T2, T4 and T9 were 19.85% -28.05% and 14.71% - 21.39%, respectively higher in apparent and physiological P use efficiency; and Treatments T2, T4, T5 and T9 were 8.55%-17.40% and 9.06% -21.98%, respectively higher in apparent and physiological K use efficiency. In summary, the application of a proper amount of complex organic-inorganic fertilizer in Treatments T5 and T9, and the application plus potassium nitrate in Treatments T4 and T7 can promote growth, yield, output value and quality of the flue-cured tobacco by improving their NPK absorption.
Key words:  Organic-inorganic complex fertilizer  Quality  Yield  Flue-cured tobacco  Fertilizer use efficiency