引用本文:杨杰,李连祯,周倩,李瑞杰,涂晨,骆永明.土壤环境中微塑料污染:来源、过程及风险[J].土壤学报,2021,58(2):281-298. DOI:10.11766/trxb202006090286
YANG Jie,LI Lianzhen,ZHOU Qian,LI Ruijie,TU Chen,LUO Yongming.Microplastics Contamination of Soil Environment: Sources, Processes and Risks[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,2021,58(2):281-298. DOI:10.11766/trxb202006090286
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土壤环境中微塑料污染:来源、过程及风险
杨杰1,2, 李连祯3, 周倩3,2, 李瑞杰3,2, 涂晨3, 骆永明1,3,2
1.中国科学院土壤环境与污染修复重点实验室(南京土壤研究所), 南京 210008;2.中国科学院大学, 北京 100049;3.中国科学院海岸带环境过程与生态修复重点实验室(烟台海岸带研究所), 烟台 264003
摘要:
土壤环境中微塑料污染问题已成为全球关注的环境问题。相对于水环境,土壤环境中微塑料的研究明显滞后与缺乏。本文系统综述了土壤环境中微塑料的研究进展与未来需求。详细介绍了国内外土壤中微塑料的丰度和分布、微塑料的来源和进入途径;重点分析了微塑料在土壤中的积累、迁移、风化和降解过程,以及与金属和有机污染物的相互作用及其环境效应;阐述了微塑料对土壤中的动物、植物、微生物及土壤质量的影响与生态风险,探讨了土壤中微塑料的暴露途径与潜在的人体健康风险;并展望了土壤环境中微塑料研究的未来方向与重点。以期为全面了解土壤环境微塑料研究的现在与未来提供资讯信息和科学指导。
关键词:  土壤环境  微塑料  环境风险  研究进展  重点方向
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41877142,41991330)资助
Microplastics Contamination of Soil Environment: Sources, Processes and Risks
YANG Jie1,2, LI Lianzhen3, ZHOU Qian3,2, LI Ruijie3,2, TU Chen3, LUO Yongming1,3,2
1.Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China;2.University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China;3.Key Laboratory of Coastal Zone Environmental Processes and Ecological Remediation, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai, Shandong 264003, China
Abstract:
Microplastics are almost ubiquitous in the environment. Their pollution of the environment has aroused grave concerns the world over. However, little has been reported in the literature on microplastics in the terrestrial environment, especially in farmland soil, compared with those in the marine and other aquatic environments. Presumably, microplastic pollution may be more serious in the terrestrial environment than in the aquatic environment. This paper is to make a comprehensive and systematic review of research progresses and future directions of the study on microplastics in the terrestrial environment, to introduce status of the pollution, and accumulation and distribution of microplastics in the soil both in China and in other countries as well, to explore their sources in the terrestrial system, including the use of agricultural film, the application of sludge and organic materials as manure, the irrigation with sewage, and surface runoff and to discuss in detail their interactions with other pollutants (heavy metal and organic pollutant), processes of their accumulation, migration, weathering, and degradation in the soil. Moreover, this paper also elaborates ecological effects of microplastics in soil, impacts of microplastics on soil physico-chemical properties, threat of microplastics to animals, plants, and microorganisms living in the soil and potential risks of microplastics to human health via the respiratory exposure and food-chain. In the end, the paper puts forward views and prospects of future researches on microplastics in the soil environment. This paper is expected to be able to provide information and scientific guidance for comprehensive understanding of the presence and future of microplastics in the soil environment.
Key words:  Soil environment  Microplastics  Environmental risk  Research progress  Key research direction