引用本文:冯雪莹,孙玉焕,张书武,王发园.微塑料对土壤-植物系统的生态效应[J].土壤学报,2021,58(2):299-313. DOI:10.11766/trxb202007190402
FENG Xueying,SUN Yuhuan,ZHANG Shuwu,WANG Fayuan.Ecological Effects of Microplastics on Soil-Plant Systems[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,2021,58(2):299-313. DOI:10.11766/trxb202007190402
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微塑料对土壤-植物系统的生态效应
冯雪莹, 孙玉焕, 张书武, 王发园
青岛科技大学环境与安全工程学院, 山东青岛 266042
摘要:
近年来,塑料污染已经成为全球性环境问题。陆地生态系统中的微塑料污染受到越来越多的重视,尤其是农业生态系统。由于降解性差,微塑料在土壤中的累积可能会对土壤生态系统造成不利影响,并通过食物链等威胁人畜健康。本文介绍了微塑料在土壤环境中的来源、分布和迁移,重点阐述了微塑料对土壤-植物系统的直接和间接生态效应。证据显示微塑料可以直接影响土壤理化性质、微生物与酶活性、土壤动物,影响植物种子萌发、根系对水分和养分的吸收,并可以被植物吸收和转运,对植物产生毒性效应;也可以通过改变土壤性质、与重金属等污染物联合作用等方式对植物产生间接效应。最后还对未来土壤-植物系统中微塑料相关研究进行了展望。以期为了解土壤微塑料的生态效应和潜在风险管控提供理论依据和科学指导。
关键词:  土壤污染  微塑料  环境风险  生态效应
基金项目:山东省自然科学基金项目(ZR2020MD120)和国家自然科学基金项目(41471395)资助
Ecological Effects of Microplastics on Soil-Plant Systems
FENG Xueying, SUN Yuhuan, ZHANG Shuwu, WANG Fayuan
College of Environment and Safety Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao, Shandong 266042, China
Abstract:
In recent years, plastic pollution has become an environmental issue of global concern. The pollution of microplastic (MPs) in the terrestrial ecosystems, especially in agroecosystems, has attracted increasing attention. Due to their low degradability, MPs accumulate in soil and render damages to soil ecosystems, thus posing health risks for human and animals through food chains. The present paper first introduces sources of MPs in soils, including plastic film mulching, application of sewage sludge and organic manure, irrigation with wastewater, atmospheric deposition, and surface runoff. Then it goes on to elaborate distribution and abundance of MPs in soil environments, particularly in agricultural soils, and discuss migration of MPs in terrestrial environments, with focuses on direct and indirect ecological effects of MPs on soil-plant systems. Current available evidence shows that MPs can directly change soil physio-chemical properties, and affect microorganisms and enzyme activities, soil fauna, seed germination, and root uptake of water and nutrients, and moreover they can be accumulated and translocated upwards, thus causing toxic effects on the plants. MPs can also indirectly affect plants via changing soil properties and interacting with other soil pollutants such as heavy metals. In the end, the paper discusses directions of the research on MPs in soil-plant systems in future. Moreover, this paper is expected to be able to provide a theoretical basis and scientific guidance for better understanding the ecological effects of soil MPs and controlling their potential risks.
Key words:  Soil pollution  Microplastics  Environmental risk  Ecological effect