引用本文:李鹏飞,侯德义,王刘炜,吴唯民,潘仕镇.农田中的(微)塑料污染:来源、迁移、环境生态效应及防治措施[J].土壤学报,2021,58(2):314-330. DOI:10.11766/trxb202009190526
LI Pengfei,HOU Deyi,WANG Liuwei,WU Weimin,PAN Shizhen.(Micro)plastics Pollution in Agricultural Soils:Sources, Transportation, Ecological Effects and Preventive Strategies[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,2021,58(2):314-330. DOI:10.11766/trxb202009190526
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农田中的(微)塑料污染:来源、迁移、环境生态效应及防治措施
李鹏飞1, 侯德义1, 王刘炜1, 吴唯民2, 潘仕镇3
1.清华大学环境学院, 北京 100084;2.斯坦福大学土木与环境工程系, 美国斯坦福CA 94305-4020;3.浙江清华长三角研究院生态环境研究所, 浙江省水质科学与技术重点实验室, 浙江嘉兴 314006
摘要:
近年来,继海洋中的微塑料污染受到广泛关注后,土壤微塑料的环境风险逐渐受到重视,有关微塑料对土壤生态环境影响的研究取得了积极进展。本文总结了迄今为止的有关农田土壤中(微)塑料的研究成果和进展,阐明了当前国内外农田微塑料污染现状;详细论述了农田土壤中(微)塑料的来源以及不同源对农田微塑料污染的潜在贡献;对农田微塑料污染现有的研究方法尤其是采样方案和微塑料的提取技术做了较为详尽的分析和论证;探讨了微塑料在土壤中的迁移、老化、与其他污染物的相互作用等环境行为和归趋,以及由此带来的环境效应和生态风险,并重点关注了微塑料污染对于农田土壤质量和食品安全带来的挑战;最后列举了部分现有的微塑料污染防治策略及其对农田中微塑料污染防治的意义,并对未来土壤中微塑料的研究方向进行展望。文章认为,农田土壤的塑料与微塑料来自多种源头,其中塑料固体废物尤其是农业地膜是农田中微塑料的主要来源之一。微塑料进入土壤后,在外界物理、化学与生物等因素扰动或作用下,会发生不同尺度的迁移转化甚至生物反应,造成广泛的环境生态影响,主要有对土壤理化性质、微生物群落、土壤动物、植物生长等的不利影响,从而损害土壤健康,影响农业生产和农产品质量;此外,细小的微塑料颗粒尤其是纳米塑料存在经由食物链向人体富集的潜在风险。塑料在土壤环境中可能被生物碎化与缓慢生物降解。考虑到微塑料在环境中的广泛分布,持久性和生态风险,结合各国现有的防治策略,提出了相关的防治建议。
关键词:  农田土壤  微塑料  地膜  生态效应
基金项目:
(Micro)plastics Pollution in Agricultural Soils:Sources, Transportation, Ecological Effects and Preventive Strategies
LI Pengfei1, HOU Deyi1, WANG Liuwei1, WU Weimin2, PAN Shizhen3
1.School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China;2.Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Stanford University, CA 94305-4020, USA;3.Department of Environment in Yangtze Delta Region Institute of Tsinghua University, Zhejiang, Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Water Science and Technology, Jiaxing, Zhejiang 314006, China
Abstract:
In recent years, after the issue of microplastics (MPs) pollution in ocean has aroused extensive global concerns, environmental risks associated with MPs in the terrestrial ecosystems are gradually attracting the eyesight of the world environmentalists, and consequently a lot of researches have been done exploring effects of MPs on soil ecological environments with gratifying progresses. This article is trying to make a comprehensive review and summary of recent advances in the research on MPs in the agroecosystem, with focus on MPs in the farmland in relation to their source, environmental behaviors, analysis methodology, impacts on the environment and ecosystem, and directions of future researches. So in the first place, it described the current status of global MP pollution, as well as their concentrations and distribution in agricultural soils, discussed potential sources of MPs and their contributions to MPs accumulation in farmlands, and then introduced sample preparation methods, especially soil sampling strategy and extraction of soil-borne MPs. Furthermore, the paper went on addressing the issues of MPs environmental behaviors in the agricultural ecosystems, such as migration, weathering, interactions with other pollutants and their fates, and the environmental impacts and ecological risks, especially potential challenges to soil health and food security, they might bright about. In the end, the paper listed the current preventive measures for control of MPs contamination with an argument on their potential contributions to prevention of the agricultural MPs pollution. This comprehensive review holds that MPs come into the farmland from multiple sources, with solid plastic wastes, like plastic mulching film, being one of the major contributors. Once entering the soil, under external disturbance or driving forces, including physical, chemical, biological factors, they accumulate, migrate and weather at a varying scale, creating significant ecological impacts on the soil environment, and even on physicochemical properties of the soil, microbial communities, soil biota, and plant growth, thus damaging soil health, and affecting agricultural production and quality of the produce. Besides, MPs pollution, especially that of nanoplastics, is posing a potential threat to human health via the food chain. Plastics in the soil may be fragmented biologically and subjected to slow biodegradation. Considering the ubiquitous distribution, persistence and ecological risks of MPs in the environment, the paper put forth some relevant suggestions for the decision-makers of the country in their efforts to control the problem, while citing as reference the MPs pollution prevention strategies of some other countries.
Key words:  Agricultural soil  Microplastics  Plastic mulching film  Ecological effects