Contents and Distribution of Soil Nutrients and Heavy Metal Elements in Farmlands of Xuzhou

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Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 40873081) and the Geological Exploration Foundation Project of Jiangsu Province in China (Urban Geological Survey of Xuzhou)

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    【Objective】Xuzhou is a city with economy based mainly on traditional agriculture and mining. In order to get to know soil fertility and pollution of the farmland soil of the city and provide references for fertilization, pollution control and agricultural layout in the region, a total of 9 232 soil samples were collected from plough layers of the farmlands in Xuzhou for analysis of 17 indices, including total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), total potassium (TK), alkalyzable nitrogen (AN), available phosphorus (AP), readily available potassium (AK), B, Mo, Mn and heavy metal elements, such as As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn. 【Method】TN was measured with the volumetric method; TP, TK, Mn, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn, with the x-ray fluorescent spectroscopy; Mo and Cd, with the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry; As and Hg, with the atomic fluorescence spectrometry; B, with the emission spectrometry; AN, with the sodium hydroxide solution diffusion-volumetric method; AK, with the ammonium acetate solution leaching-atomic absorption spectrometry; and AP, with the ammonium bifluoride and hydrochloride leaching- inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry in acid soils and with the sodium bicarbonate solution leaching-spectrophotometry in alkaline soils. Descriptive statistics was performed with the helo of the IBM Statistics SPSS 20.0 software and Kriging interpolation, spatial analysis and geo-statistics with the aid of the ESRI ArcGIS 9.3. Soil nutrient contents were graded according to DZ/T 0295-2016 and soil heavy metal contents, using the Nemerow index. 【Result】The descriptive statistics showed that the average contents of soil nutrients in Xuzhou were higher than those in Jiangsu and China, while the average contents of heavy metal elements were higher than those in Jiangsu and China, and than the background values of Xuzhou, too. The variation coefficients of AP, AK, Mo and Hg were higher than those of the other elements, which indicated high variability between soil samples. Over 80% of the farmlands were rated as moderate or higher in soil nutrient content, while over 99% of the farmlands were sorted into the category of clean or safe soils. Farmlands lightly polluted by As, Cd, Cu or Ni were very limited in area. The higher soil nutrient contents may be attributed to long-term farming cultivation and application of organic manure, meanwhile, the higher heavy metal contents may come from mining and smelting of coal, iron and copper and relevant industries, as well, like thermal power. All the soil indices exhibited significant characteristics in spatial distribution and their spatial correlations with soil types and farmland types. Spatial distributions of TN, TP, TK, AN, AP and AK contents were apparently quite similar, but those of AN, AP and AK varied sharply, while those of B, Mo and Mn did even more. The distribution of heavy metal elements in farmland soils exhibited a declining trend from north to south. The sharp spatial variation of soils in composition was mainly related to soil type and farmland type. Soils derived from lacustrine sediments were higher than those from hill slope sediments and from river alluvium in nutrient content and heavy metals content, and paddy soils higher than dryland soils and garden soils, too. Besides, landform was also an important influencing factor. 【Conclusion】The average contents of soil nutrients and heavy metal elements in the farmlands of Xuzhou are generally higher than those of Jiangsu and China and than the background values, too. Over 80% of the farmland soils in Xuzhou can be rated moderate or higher in nutrient content level while merely less than 1% is polluted by heavy metal elements. The main factors influencing contents and distribution of soil nutrients and heavy metal elements include soil type, soil parent material, landform tillage, fertilization, as well as mining and industries.

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WANG Yujun, OU Minghao. Contents and Distribution of Soil Nutrients and Heavy Metal Elements in Farmlands of Xuzhou[J]. Acta Pedologica Sinica,2017,54(6):1438-1450.

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  • Received:July 28,2017
  • Revised:August 18,2017
  • Adopted:September 01,2017
  • Online: September 04,2017
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