Effects of Soil Hydrothermal Response and Pools of Carbon and Nitrogen Under Straw Cover Rotation on Slope Farmland of Low Mountains and Hills

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Supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (No.2022YFD1500704),the National Soybean Industry Technology Systemof China(No.CARS-04-01A) and the Industrial Cooperative Technology System Project of Heilongjiang Province,China(No.20190506)

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    【Objective】 The main forms of soil erosion are water, wind and freeze-thaw erosion in the black soil area of Northeast China, and slope farmland is the main source of soil erosion. Human factors such as long-term plowing and straw burning or leaving the field untended and heavy use of light farming or other factors have led to the loss of surface soil, shallow cultivated layer, soil infiltration and erosion resistance of sloping farmland. This would aggravate surface runoff and soil water erosion in summer during severe rainfall. To improve the straw return rate in sloping farmland, a suitable farming method based on planting and cultivating land was proposed. 【Method】 Field experiments were used to study the effects of straw mulching and rotation tillage technology (including this season straw mulching and fallow, last season straw mulching and rotary tillage) and conventional farming (straw removal and rotary tillage) on soil water and heat changes and carbon and nitrogen accumulation.【Result】 The results showed that: water content in the 20-40 cm soil layer in the early stage of planting could significantly be increased with straw mulching, and the mulching fallow and mulching rotary tillage treatments increased by 26.02% and37.49%, respectively, compared with conventional tillage. At the same time, the 20-40 cm soil bulk density in mulching rotary tillage treatment was higher than that of conventional tillage and mulching fallow, which were reduced by 6.52% and 13.04%, respectively. Compared with mulching and rotary tillage, mulching and fallow could reduce the soil temperature of 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm in the early stage of crop growth by 1.57℃-1.63℃, while the soil moisture content increased by 15.25%-24.41%, which provided conditions for crop emergence and early growth. Combining straw mulching fallow tillage and mulching rotary tillage technologies increased the carbon and nitrogen content of 0-20 cm soil layer, and the organic carbon and total nitrogen reserves were increased by 11.36% and 20.51% compared with conventional tillage.【Conclusion】 All of this provide a scientific basis for the implementation of protective farming techniques on slope farmland in the low mountain and hilly areas. In the future, the optimized combination of crop varieties and dwarfing and maturity promotion would promote the increase of productivity in slope farmland when implementing conservation tillage technology.

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WANG Genlin, DUAN Yan, LIU Zhengyu, WANG Nannan, GAO Yang, LI Yumei, MENG Xianghai, WANG Wei, CAI Shanshan, SUN Lei. Effects of Soil Hydrothermal Response and Pools of Carbon and Nitrogen Under Straw Cover Rotation on Slope Farmland of Low Mountains and Hills[J]. Acta Pedologica Sinica,2023,60(4):1058-1066.

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  • Received:December 17,2021
  • Revised:March 14,2022
  • Adopted:May 18,2022
  • Online: May 25,2022
  • Published: July 28,2023