The Response of Soil Fungal Communities and Potential Functions to the Application of Exogenous Bt Toxins

1.College of Food Sciences and Technology of Shanghai Ocean University;2.Biotechnology Research Institute of Shanghai Academy of Agricultural Sciences,Shanghai Key Laboratory of Agricultural Genetics and Breeding,Key Laboratory of biosafety assessment environment of agricultural genetically modified organisms of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs;3.Shandong County Agricultural Technology Extension Center,Jinan;4.School of Life Sciences of Fudan University

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the National Natural Science Foundation of China (32071657), the Natural Science Foundation of Shanghai (19ZR1434400), the “Science and Technology Innovation Action Plan”-Technical Standards of Shanhgai (20DZ2202900) and the Talent Project of SAAS (PG21211).

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    【Objective】Bt toxins released from Bt plants and BT biopesticides are potential exogenous pollutants in the environment with biocidal activity. The environmental behavior and ecological effects of Bt toxins are the focus of safety risk assessment of transgenic plants and transgenic microorganisms. Fungus is an important component of soil microbes and plays a key role in maintaining soil ecosystem stability, but the dynamic response of soil fungal communities and potential functions to exogenous Bt toxins remains unclear. 【Method】In this study, the retention dynamics of Bt toxins in soils incorporated with different concentrations of Bt toxins were analyzed, and high-throughput sequencing technology of fungal 18S rRNA gene was used to analyze the effects of Bt toxins application on the soil fungal community and functional diversity. 【Result】The results showed that the concentration of water-dissolved Bt toxins in soil decreased significantly with the prolongation of soil incubation time, and the amounts of water-dissolved Bt toxins in soil with initial Bt toxins concentrations of 50, 100 and 500 ng·g-1 decreased to those of control soil on the 100th day. Both the application of Bt toxins and incubation time could significantly affect the composition of the soil fungal community, and with an increase of initial Bt toxins concentration and prolongation of soil incubation time, the difference in soil fungal community gradually widened. The application of Bt toxins increased the Shannon index of the soil fungal community, the negative correlation and modules of the association network, and thus it did not adversely affect the diversity and stability of the soil fungal community. 【Conclusion】The results indicate that the initial concentration of Bt toxins and its long-term effects should be of concern when assessing the environmental behavior and micro-ecological effects of Bt toxins. With the increase of Bt toxins concentration, the relative abundances of Phymatotrichopsis, Homalogastra, Geosmithia and Apiotrichum increased significantly, as well as functional genes encoding enzymes involved in protein degradation, carbon metabolism and phosphorus metabolism. It is speculated that the above-mentioned fungal taxa and potential functions were involved in the degradation and transformation process of Bt toxins in the soil. This study provides a scientific reference and theoretical basis for the ecological safety risk assessment of Bt plants, Bt recombinant biopesticides and Bt toxins.

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Li Yujie, Ge Lei, Hu Cong, Wang Luyao, Guo Guanqing, Wu Guogan, Wang Cui, Song Lili, Sun Yu, Wang Jinbin, Zeng Haijuan, Xu Qinqing, Quan Zhexue, Li Peng. The Response of Soil Fungal Communities and Potential Functions to the Application of Exogenous Bt Toxins[J]. Acta Pedologica Sinica,2024,61(3).

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  • Received:September 07,2022
  • Revised:March 01,2023
  • Adopted:March 28,2023
  • Online: April 06,2023
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