• Volume 26,Issue 3,1989 Table of Contents
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    • >论文
    • A REVIEW OF PAST FORTY YEARS AND PROSPECTS FOR FUTURE——PREFACE

      1989, 26(3):205-206.

      Abstract (1320) HTML (0) PDF 170.43 K (1870) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:在建国40周年之际,中国土壤学会在本刊共组织了10篇论文同期发表,这些论文主要对土壤学及其分支学科40年的发展,进行了全面的回顾与展望,这对进一步了解与促进我国土壤科学的发展,具有重要意义,值得我国土壤学界共同关注与庆贺。

    • DEVELOPMENT AND PROSPECT OF SOIL SCIENCE IN CHINA

      1989, 26(3):207-216.

      Abstract (1861) HTML (0) PDF 794.45 K (2779) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Present article rivet a prospect of the development of soil science in China. It covers soil geography, soil chenistry, agricultural chemistry, soil physics, soil mineralogy, soil biochemistry, soil microbiology and ecology. Investigations of soil science carried out in China during the last fifty years are also reviewed.1. Soil geography: Soil geography covers soil genesis, classification and cartography. The orthodox idea of bio-climatic soil types lies on the following five factors i.e. climate (particularly temperature and precipitation), living organisms (especially native vegetation and human beings), parent material, topographical factor and time that parent materials are subjected to soil formation.The classification of main soil types in China mainly follows the above mentioned factors given by the Soviet teacher V. V. Dokuchaev. However, in agricultural soils cultivation has an overwhelming influence on soil development. For example, rice paddy soils are developed under alternative wet and dry condition. The oxidation-reduction process governs the genesis of soil profile for which we have a specific classification system.We are preparing a soil map of China scaled 1:1 million. The conception of diagnosis honzons is a quantitative measure for soil classification system. We are endeavoring to make such an innovation in soil classification. Remote sensing method is applying in the loessial plain of the lower Yellow River. This new technic, in connection with field soil survey, is extending to various soil regions where and when the vegetation covering are very scarcely. 2. Soil chemistry: In the earlier period of soil science study in China, sail chemistry was Lrgely confined to soil analysis. Extensive analytical data of complete mineral composition and weathering ratios of soil colloid were made. These data served valuable references for the classification of great soil groups.

    • REVIEW OF CHINESE SOIL CLASSIFICATION FOR THE PAST FOUR DECADES

      1989, 26(3):217-225.

      Abstract (2302) HTML (0) PDF 717.23 K (3110) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Since the founding of the People's Republic of China, soil classification has been improved. There have been at least nine soil classification systems that cover whole soils in china. Three periods can be distinguished: At the early period 1950's, C. F. Marbut's system was adopted, and in this system great soil group was used as the basic unit and soil series as the low category and Shandong brown soils which only occured in China, Sajong (calcic concretion) black soils and paddy soils were included. Genetic soil classification system was introduced in 1954, and since then, some new great groups such as yellow-brown soils, black soils, Baijiang (abic) soils and lateritic red earths were proposed. Afterwards, with the general soil survey on cultivated soils, paddy soils was enriched, Cha (fluvo-aquic) soils warped irrigated soils and Lou (stratified old manured lossial) soils were distinguished as independent great groups and a lot of new great groups were proposed. In recently years, Chinese soil taxonomic classification, wich is based on the diagnostic horizons and characteristics of abundant soil types in china, is being developed, but perhaps a long time would be needed to make it perfect.

    • SOIL EROSION STUDIES IN RETROSPECT AND IN PROSPECT

      1989, 26(3):226-233.

      Abstract (1907) HTML (0) PDF 641.32 K (2399) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:This paper describes the position and role of our soil erosion studies in the construction of national economy, outlines the achievements made in the past 40 years since the founding of the People's Republic of China and discusses the relevant problems that have to be further solved, such as ascertaining the present situation of soil-water losses and conservation, soil erosion prediction, sasesment of natural erosion and artificially accelerated erosion, soil erosion processes and xologieal environment evolution, soil erosion-soil productivity reaction patterns, and the relationship between the control and development of eroded areas and harnessing of rivers on the one hand, and the development of production in agriculture, forestry and animal husbandry on the other.

    • THE SECOND NATIONWIDE GENERAL SOIL SURVEY AND THE DEVELOPMENTS IN SOIL AND FERTILIZER SCIENCES

      1989, 26(3):234-240.

      Abstract (2857) HTML (0) PDF 545.21 K (3264) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:During forty years since the founding of the People's Republic of China, there have been two nationwide general soil surveys conducted in China. This article presents a brief review of the first nationwide soil general survey, and paid a substantial content in summing up the achievements in the second nationwide general soil survey and the developments of soil and fertilizer sciences.The second nationwide general soil survey is one of the prority projects in the National Planning Programme for Science and Technology Developments, 1979-1985 (a draft plan). Under the direction of the Science and Technology Advisory Group, great achievements have been acquired by using greater scale topographic map, remote sensing, micro-computer, new testing method and other investigation, mapping and analysis techniques. These achievements would give great contributions to the development of soil classification science through replenishing the basic units of primary level soil classification, promote the establishment of soil test network, and Improve the soil analysis methods. The soil survey results will be widely used in agricultural district divisions planning, adoption of scientific fertilizer application, soil improvement and the establishment of production bases for particular farm products of crop, forestry and animal productions. The article also discusses about the soil fertility monitoring network established during conducting soil general survey. In short, it pseseuts one aspect of the development of soil and fertilizer scionces in China.

    • PROGRESS IN RESEARCH ON SOIL WATER IN PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA IN PAST 40 YEARS

      1989, 26(3):241-248.

      Abstract (1636) HTML (0) PDF 644.07 K (2758) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:On the basis of review and summarization, this paper deals with the progress and achievements in the research on soil water since the founding of the People's Republic of China. From the following 6 aspects, i.e., basical concepts of the research on soil water, soil water physical properties and water regime, retention and movement of soil water, soil water management and regulation, progress in measuring technology and the others, the author considered that the achievements in the research on soil water were remarkable in China in the past 40 years, especially in the last decade.Finally, based on the current problems and suggestions, the prospects for future researches are given.

    • REVIEW OF SOIL CHEMISTRY RESEARCHES IN CHINA (1949-1989)

      1989, 26(3):249-254.

      Abstract (1532) HTML (0) PDF 464.64 K (2042) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Although the foundation of soil chemistry is weak in the country, it developed rapidly in last fourty years. The researches covered almost all of the important areas in soil chemistry, but concentrated on soil colloid, ion adsorption and electrochemistry. More attention has peen given to the chemistry of soil fertility. The chemical composition and physicochemical characteristics of the major soil types were provided by soil chemists, especially for red earths and paddy soils. However, further progress of soil chemistry is needed for great challenges exist in agriculture production and theoretical problems of soils science in China.

    • A REVIEW ON THE STUDIES OF SOIL ORGANIC MATTER AND ORGANIC MANURE IN CHINA

      1989, 26(3):255-261.

      Abstract (1607) HTML (0) PDF 595.09 K (2531) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:In this paper studies on the composition, properties and transformation of soil organic matter as their relation with soil forming fractors in the past four decades in China were breifly reviewed. The effect of organic manure on soil fertility and plant growth was discussed. And the importance of the integrated management of organic manure and chemical fertilizer in agriculture was emphasized.

    • RECENT ADVANCE AND PERSPECTIVE OF SOIL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH IN CHINA

      1989, 26(3):262-272.

      Abstract (1512) HTML (0) PDF 922.59 K (3400) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:In present paper a brief account of the historical development of soil environmental protection research in China since 1949 is given. The recent advances of research work's in this field are reviewed. And some suggestions for its farther development are proposed. Meanwhile, relevant aspects are described, such as: the scope and the theoretical foundations as well as the academic guidlines and methodology of soil environmental protection research, the present situation of research on soil pollution and its prevention, and the clean-up effect of soil-plant system and its application in practice. And finally the prospective of soil enviroumental protection research in China is set forth.

    • FERTILIZER EFFICIENCY AND MEASURES TO RAISE FERTILIZER EFFICIENCY IN CHINA MAIN——ACHIEVEMENTS OF CHINA NATIONAL NETWORK ON CHEMICAL FERTILIZER EXPERIMENTS (CNNCFE)

      1989, 26(3):273-279.

      Abstract (1979) HTML (0) PDF 555.06 K (2773) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:This paper gives a brief review on CNNCEF's origin, characters and tasks. Research work of CNNCFE in more than 30 years is summarized in chronological order: More stress of fertilizers research was put on N fertilizers in the 50's, P fertilizers in the 60's, K fertilizers in the 70's. and balanced use of N, P, K and compound fertilizers in the 80's. Many trials on fertilizer efficiency and fertilization techniques have been carried out during this period, providing a scientific basis for chemical fertilizer production, distribution and application Key point of the present CNNCFE's work is mentioned here, its experience, shortcomings and future are also focused in the paper.

    • GENERAL STATUS OF NUTRIENTS (N,P,K) IN SOILS OF CHINA

      1989, 26(3):280-286.

      Abstract (6024) HTML (0) PDF 539.27 K (4709) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:1. The content range of total soil nutrients of China are as follows:N: 0.04-0.38% P: 0.02-0.11% K: 0.05-2.5%. 2. Generally, the NPK content of soils under natural vegetative cover is higher than that under cultivation, and the nutrients content of paddy soils greater than that of dryland soils of the same origin. 3. Total and available nutrient levels of soils are mainly influentd by parent material,degree of weathering and histrry of cultivation.4.Almost all the soils of arable lands of China need nitrogen application,while about 1/3-1/2 of arable land area is deficient in phosphorus, and 1/4-1/3 deficient in potassium.5. The phosphorus level of soils deficient now in phosphorus is increasing gradually because of phosphorus fertilizer application, while that of soils not deficient now in phosphorus is ratting decreased because of phosphorus unbalance.6. The area of soils deficient in potassium has a tendency to increase.7. Based on the results now available, the sketch. maps of soil nitrogen, pbosphorw sad potassium status of China were compiled.

    • STUDY ON CHARACTERISTICS OF VERTISOL IN FUJIAN PROVINCE

      1989, 26(3):287-297.

      Abstract (1911) HTML (0) PDF 726.74 K (2484) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:The dark clay soil developed on the weathering products of the basalt, distributed over hilly land and terraces along Fujian coast has been distinguished into the lateritic red earths blow it is suggested by the authors that this soil is obviously different from the lateritic red earth. As compared with the lateritic red earth, this soil are weaker in leaching-weathering processes and desilicification allitic processes, darker in colbr of the whole solum, more indistines in differentiation of the profile, higher in content of the clay within depth of 50 cm, with the clay minerals predominanted by montmorillonite, a larger CEC, the higher base saturation and pH value, more distinct shrinkage-swelling and more cracks in dry season. Moreover, there appear angular blocky structure and slickenside features on the ped faces. According the criteria of the keys to US Soil Taxonomy, this soil is named "Fine, Montmorillonitic, Hyperthermic. Typic Chromudert". It is suggested that vertisol should be regarded as an independent classification unit in China. The vertisul exist with the lateritic red earth in the form of catena, its location is lower than that of lateritic red earth. As a result, the bases and clay are often accumulated in vertisol due to their migration from the high lands around it, which offers favorite conditions for development of vertisol. So the development of the vertisol is iafluenced by topography.

    • STUDIES ON HUMIC SUBSTANCES OF SOILS IN LOESS AREA OF NORTHWEST CHINA

      1989, 26(3):298-304.

      Abstract (1851) HTML (0) PDF 466.25 K (2552) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:The paper deals with contents, composition, characteristics and distribution of liumua in loessial soils of northwest China. Results obtained are summarized as follows. 1. Distribution of humus contents of soil was getting lower from southeast to northwest. 2. The contens of humic acid, HA/FA ratio and aromaticity of humic acid were high in the light dark loessial soil under steppe vegetation in Jingbain County of Shaaxi Province, and getting decreased westward and northward to the brown pedocal and white cultivated ioessial soil under the vegetation of desert steppe, and decreased southward to manured loessial soil and cinnamon soil under forest steppe and forest vegetation, also decreased eastward to yellow cultivated loessied soil. But the contents of humin was getting increaed westward, northward, southward and eastward. 3. if dark loessil soil was considered as a centre, humic acid combined with Ca were getting decreased gradully from the centre to west, north, south and east, humic arid combined with Fe, Al was getting increased from the centre to west, north, south and east. 4. Aromaticity of humic acid was in the order: steppe foils>arid steppe and forest steppe soils > desert steppe and forest soils.

    • >Research Notes
    • A METHOD OF MEASURING NITROUS OXIDE EMISSION FROM SOILS IN SITU

      1989, 26(3):305-308.

      Abstract (1534) HTML (0) PDF 411.66 K (2068) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:业已证明硝化和反硝化过程都产生N2O[2,6]。为了定量研究土壤中氮素损失途径的相对重要性,迫切需要建立原位土壤中N2O释放量的测定方法。根据我们的条件,参照有关资料[7],设计了原位收集N2O的装置和测定方法,简介如下。

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