• Volume 32,Issue 3,1995 Table of Contents
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    • PROGRESS AND PROSPECT IN FERTILIZER RECOMMEN-DATION BASED ON SOIL TESTING IN CHINA

      1995, 32(3):241-252.

      Abstract (1840) HTML (0) PDF 805.21 K (2760) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:In the recent decade, the studies on the fertilizer recommendation based on soil testing are greatly developed, and the technology has been extented in a large area of China. The paper presents a review of the developments in testing of available soil nutrients, explanation of analysis results for nutrients and methods for determinating fertilizer rates. Additionally, the related problems and further research direction about fertilizer recommendation based on soil testing are disscussed.

    • CHANGES OF STRUCTURAL CHARACTERISTICS OF NEWLY CULTIVATED LATERITIC RED SOIL

      1995, 32(3):253-265.

      Abstract (1705) HTML (0) PDF 774.77 K (2352) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:This paper primarily discusses the changes of structural characteristics of newly cultivated lateritic red soil. Results are summarized as follows: (1)Under subtropical bioclimate condition, it was unavoidable for newly cultivated lateritic red soil to be sandified due to distrubance by tillage and other managemen practice. It was found that aftrr cultivation, the contents of <0.001mm clay and <0.01mm physical clay in newly cultivated red soil reduced by 35-72% and 10-20% respectively, 0.05-0.01mm silt increased by 20-55%,while 3-0.05mm sand increased or decreased with the changes of silt content.(2) Waterstable aggregate composition of the lateritic red soil changed after cultivation.>1mm aggregates increased more than one time over before cultivation, while <0.5mm aggregates decreased by 3-25%.The increase of>1mm aggregates in 0-20cm soil layer under different patterns of crop rotation was in the descending sequence of perenial Taiwan grass >1:1>1:2>2:1 (3) Reasons for increase of larger aggregates were different for soils under different use patterns. For soils with legume and non-legume crop rotation the increase of larger aggregates might be attributed to the increase of organic matter, while for soil grown with perenial Taiwan grass it might be due to the grass root peneratration and cutting, It was indicated that the more the soil organic matter, the more the >1mm aggregates would be in the soil with legume and non-legume crop rotauon.(4) The bulk density and porosity in the soils with legume and non-legume crop rotation gradually became more suitable for the growth of crops. Generally, the bulk density and capillary porosity rose in the 0-10cm soil layer but decreased in the 10-20cm layer. But no increase in bulk density and porosity was found in the soil grown with perenial Taiwan grass.

    • ESTABLISHMENT AND APPLICATIONS OF NUMERICAL SOIL CLASSIFICATION MODEL——ESTABLISHMENT OF RSCM

      1995, 32(3):266-270.

      Abstract (1445) HTML (0) PDF 2.28 M (2263) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:By a combination of many multi variate statistical analysis methods as a skeleton, taking the saline meadow prairie soils in Nongan, Jilin Province as an example, a regional soil classification model (RSCM) was established in the article on the basis of new concepts like pedon structure functional formula. RSCM effectively works out the numerical values of pedon structure and sets up a quantitative criterion for the comparison of profiles.

    • GENETIC CHARACTERISTICS AND CLASSIFICATION OF LATE PLEISTONCENE RED PALEOSOL

      1995, 32(3):271-277.

      Abstract (1630) HTML (0) PDF 467.67 K (2721) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Q3-red paleosol was studied by comparing with Q2-red paleosol from soil age, spore-pollen,ancient climate, genetic characteristics, etc. The results showed that the Q3-red paleosol and Q2-red paleosol were distinct types of parent materials of distinct geologic periods, their soils underwent different development processes and the clear difference existed not only in their genetic characteristic but also in their physical and chemical properties. According to the Chinese Soil Taxonomic Classification, Q3-red paleosol must belong to yellow-brown soil rather than red soil.

    • SOIL GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION PATTERNS IN MT. NAMJABARWA AREA

      1995, 32(3):278-283.

      Abstract (1599) HTML (0) PDF 2.42 M (2754) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Mt. Namjabarwa, 7782 m above sea level, is situated at the eastern tip of the Himalaya Range. The regularities of soil geographic distribution in this area are summarized as follows: 1. The vertical zones of soil on the southern slope belong to a marine humid type, the vertical spectrum are composed of latored yellow earth (500-1100 m), yellow earth(1100-1900 m), yellow brown earth(1900-2300 m), grey brown earth (2300-2800m), podzol(2800-3600m),grey-sod soil (3600-3900m), frost-sod soil (3900-4300 m), and alpine frost desert soil (4300-4800 m). Owing to the difference in heat and moisture, the spectrum on the southern slope differs from that on the brown earth (2800-3200 m), podzol (3200-4200 m), grey-sod soil (4100-4500 m), frost-sod soil (4500-4700 m) and alpine frost desert soil (4700-5000 m). 2. From south to north along the Yarlung Zangbo river valley, there are four soil zones in horizonal direction, namely latored yellow earth, yellow earth, yellow brown earth and grey brown earth, brown earth, According to the vertical spectrums of the Mt. Namjabarwa area, the soils there might be grouped into five types. 3. The influeces of moisture degree, mountain altitude, the inversion of temperature and human activities on the vertical soil zones are also discussed.

    • EFFECT OF DIFFERENT FERTILIZATION CONDITIONS AND YEARS ON ENERGY STATE AND PYROLYTIC CHARACTERISTICS OF SOIL HUMIC ACID

      1995, 32(3):284-291.

      Abstract (1720) HTML (0) PDF 499.57 K (2860) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:The results obtained by using an Oxygen-bomb calorimeter showed that the caloric value (energy state) of soil humic acid under different conditions of fertilization decreased in the following order: compost > straw > chemical fertilizer > no fertilizer > fallow. The energy state of fixed position experiment of ten years was lower than that of four years.The results of thermal analysis showed that soil humic acid under different conditions of fertilization had a similar peak of heat effect and peak of weight loss. The treatment of organic fertilizer applied tended to low in both the enthalpy change value of 460℃ exothermic peak of DTA and activation energy of weight loss peak of DTG. The 340℃ exothermic peak of DTA of humic acid in the fixed position experiment of ten years was not more obvious and the enthalpy change value of 460℃ exothermic peak was higher than those of four years. The activation energy of weight loss peak of DTG .than in the fouz-years fixed was higher in the ten-year fixed position experiment positron experiment.

    • COMPARISON OF N TRANSFORMATION AND ITS EFFECT ON RICE YIELD BETWEEN DIRECT APPLICATION OF 15N -LABELLED RICE STRAW AND APPLICATION OF GOAT FECES AFTER FEEDING GOAT WITH RICE STRAW

      1995, 32(3):290-299.

      Abstract (1701) HTML (0) PDF 566.89 K (2821) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Microplot experiment was used in a paddy field to study the fate of nitrogen and its effect on rice yield when 15N-labelled goat feces and rice straw were applied alone or in combination with urea as basic fertilizer. The results showed that 15N recovery from goat feces by rice grain accounted for 7.9% and 9.2%,respectively, being equivalent to 2.2% and 2.6% of 15N in the feed-rice straw respectively. By using rice straw to feed goats and returning the goat feces to the field, 15N recovery by goat body and rice grain was 33.4% and 33.7% respectively, which was higher than 15N recovery from rice straw by rice grain (9.9% and 14.5% respecti-vely) as rice straw was applied directly to the soils.

    • CHANGES IN CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF RED SOIL AFTER SURFACE APPLICATION OF POWDERED LIMESTONE

      1995, 32(3):300-307.

      Abstract (1609) HTML (0) PDF 521.77 K (3094) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:The results of a 10-year liming field experiment and pot experiment indicated that(1)the reduction in the soil acidity and the increase in the contents of exchangeable Ca and Mg after application of powdered limestone resulted in the yield increase of green grain; (2) the reduction in soil acidity of the subsoil increased as the time of application of powdered limestone prolonged and lime rate increased, the effects of reducing soil acidity and increasing the yields of the crops could last at least 10 years; (3) the treatment with 7.5 t/ha powdered limestone significantly increased the contents of organic matter, total N, and available P; (4) the contents of available Zn and Cu of the soil increased as the pH increased and were significantly related to organic matter content of the soil, those correlation coeffioients were 0.965** (n=5) and 0.887** (n=5), respectively; (5) the contents of organic matter available Zn, and available Cu decreased with the increase of soil depth and (6) for red soil deficient in P, application of lime in combination with phosphorus fertilizer had an even better effect on the yield increase of soybeams.

    • RESISTANCES OF DIFFERENT RAPE VARIETIES TO B DEFICIENCY OF SOIL

      1995, 32(3):308-314.

      Abstract (1757) HTML (0) PDF 515.19 K (2451) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Pot experiment and water culture were used to compare the characters of rape varieties. A three-year fix-location field experiment of B fertilizer application was conducted to study the quantity of absorption and accumulation of B during different growing stages of rape. Microscopy was used to detect formation of pollen grain, and 10B α-solid technique was used to determine the contents and distribution of B in the flower organs of rape. The results showed that responses of rape vaneties to B nutrition varied greatly.

    • EFFECTS OF ORGANIC MANURE AND CHEMICAL FERTILIZED ON BALANCE OF MICROELEMENTS IN LOU SOIL

      1995, 32(3):315-320.

      Abstract (1923) HTML (0) PDF 388.08 K (2631) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Effects of long-term application of organic manure and chemical fertilizer on the contents of Zn, Mn, Fe and Cu in soil were studied. The results show that the organic manure is a good resource of Zn, Fe and Cu. After long-term application of organic manure, the available Zn increased 8 times from 0.2 to 1.6 mg/kg; avai- fable Fe increased by 63.9% from 5.32 to 8.72 mg/kg; and available Cu increased by 17.5% from 1.14 to 1.34 mg/kg. Part of increased nutrients came from organic manure, and part from the decomposition and mineralization of soil Zn, Fe and Mn because the soil pH was decreased due to the decay of organic manure and roots. Correlation coefficients of pH decrease and available Zn and Fe increase were -0.907** and -0.981** respectively, while correlation coefficients of pH decrease and total soil Fe and Mn decrease were 0.864** and 0.791** respectively, ahowing a close correlation between the availability of Zn, Fe and Mn and the pH of Soil.

    • EVALUATION ON EFFICIENCY OF CHORIDE-BEARING FERTILIZER APPLIED IN FARMLAND

      1995, 32(3):321-326.

      Abstract (1804) HTML (0) PDF 2.33 M (2391) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:A long-term fixed position experiment was carried out from 1987 to 1992 to study the efficiency of chloride-bearing fertilizer applied in farmland. The results show(1)in south Jiangsu where the evaporation and rainfall are close, to apply ammonium chloride was better than to apply urea in increasing crop yields, utilization rate of nitrogen, and the crude protein and amino acid contents of rice, wheat and rape; (2) increaseing times of applying ammonium chloride could nota- bly raise the utilization rate of nitrogen and improve the quality of crop seeds. (3) the accumulation of Cl- in the soil inseased with the amount of ammonium chloride applied, but the accumulation and leaching of Cl- in the soil went to equlibrium as the test continued and no accumulation of Cl- in the plough and one-meter soil layer was discovered;and (4) the continuous application of chloride-bearing fertilizer could quicken soil acidfication.

    • STUDY ON LAND TREATMENT OF WASTES IN ORGANIC CHEMICAL INDUSTRY

      1995, 32(3):327-333.

      Abstract (1497) HTML (0) PDF 496.50 K (2718) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:The acute toxicity from three types of industrial wastes in photobacteria test significantly decreased, even disappeared, after land treatment. The genetic toxicity of samples both in the Ames test and in the spontaneous dark variant of photobacteria test was weakened from positive to negative, or the degree of positive was obviously weakened. The basic reason why both the acute toxicity and the genetic toxicity were lowered could be attributed to the degradation of the toxic organic chemicals in land treatment substances. The contents of extractable organic chemicats from three types of industrial wastes fell clearly after land treatment. The total degradation rate of organic substances was 40-70%.The degradation rate of primary organic chemicals was 50-90%.It was indicated that land treatment of industrial wastes could get a satisfactory effect, and land treatment would be a prospective good way to the industrial wastes treatment.

    • STUDY ON EFFECT OF SOIL AMELIORATION WITH COAL ASH

      1995, 32(3):334-340.

      Abstract (1870) HTML (0) PDF 2.53 M (2380) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:A four-year field experiment was carried out in six provinces and cities for studying the effect of clayey soil amelioration with coal ash produced by the wet method in power plants on crop yields. The results showed that by applying 15000 to 30000 kg/mu coal ash into soil, wheat yield increased by 12.7±5.8%,crop yield by 12.1±3.5%,and the rice yield by 13.5±7.0%,with a certain effect on the yields of foxtail millet, sweet potato, cotton, and vegetables Besides, after application of coalash, clay content of soil decreased, density and swelling value reduced, porosity of soil increased and the ratio of 3 phases (gas, liquid, solid) was adjusted. Coal ash could also improve the physical properties of clayey soil, increase soil P, and Si contents and promote microbial activities, thus raising soil temperature, enhancing the transformation of soil nutrients and creating a good soil environment for crop growth.

    • A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON ENVIRONMENTAL REFERENCE VALUES OF ARSENIC IN SOME TYPES OF SOILS IN CHINA

      1995, 32(3):341-348.

      Abstract (1737) HTML (0) PDF 546.46 K (3589) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:In this study, environmental quality reference values of arsenic in four types of soils were established according to the ecological and environmental effects of excess arsenic in soils. Regional differentiation of the values is distinct, i.e., the reference values for yellow-brown earth and red earth distributed in the southeast part are in the range of 45-51mg/kg, whereas those for cinnamon soil and sierozem distribused in North and Northwest China are in the range of 21-25mg/kg. The distribution pattern is formed due to the variations of natural conditions and soil environmental characteristics as well as arsenic species in different soil types. Soil environment is complicated and diversified in China, therefore it is important to emphasize regional characteristics for the establishment of reference values of various elements in soils.

    • MICROBIAL BIOMASS AND ACTIVITY IN A FLUVO-AQUIC SOIL UNDER VARIOUS FERTILIZATION CONDITIONS

      1995, 32(3):349-352.

      Abstract (1528) HTML (0) PDF 265.18 K (2545) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:土壤微生物是C,N,P,K等元素的转换因子和重要库源。据报道,在没有作物时,加人土壤的N肥约有80多以有机形态长期贮藏于土壤[2],其中约20多为微生物N[3]。微生物对肥料的效应、土壤肥力有极为重要的影响。随着方法的不断成熟,土壤微生物C,N,P,K等元素的测定值,已逐渐成为耕作、栽培等农业管理措施对土壤肥力影响的灵敏指标[4]。本文就潮土施有机肥、无机肥及二者配合施用后土壤微生物C,N,p及其活性的测定值,探讨不同肥料对培肥土壤的效应。

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