• Volume 39,Issue 5,2002 Table of Contents
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    • REVELATION OF INFORMATION ON GENESIS OF MULTI PALEOSOL FROM QUATERNARY LOESS PROFILE

      2002, 39(5):609-617. DOI: 10.11766/trxb200008010501

      Abstract (2111) HTML (0) PDF 323.91 K (3478) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:New Viewpoints on bio-climatic environmental evolution in Quaternary were proposed based on analysis of physical,chemical,mineralogical composition,spore pollen and micro-morphology studies on soil samples taken at 30~50 cmintervals from Luochuan loess profile dating back to 200,000 BC.The Loess layer(L),formerly interpreted as deposition in arid and cold climate,revealed semi-arid environmental evolution and corresponding soil formation.The red-brown paleosol layer(S),formerly represented warm and humid environment essentially revealed interior arid and semi-arid environmental evolution as shown by contrasting coexistence of both arid and humid type of spore pollen.The present study confirmed that thick Luochuan loess profile is a special multi-paleosol profile system eomprising different soil types and formed by alteration of loess deposition and soil formation in the course of bio-climatic environmental evolution in Quaternary.

    • HOLOCENE SOILS AND ENVIRONMENT IN KUNSHAN REGION, SOUTH JIANGSU

      2002, 39(5):618-626. DOI: 10.11766/trxb200012050502

      Abstract (2047) HTML (0) PDF 324.81 K (2785) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:The soils on fluviolacutrine deposit,in Kunshan region,South Jiangsu,formed in the Holocene.According to the analysis of their soil properties,14C age and pollen spectrum,and micromorphology the soils of Holocene can be divided into four forming stages: initial,transitional and typical ones of deposition soil formation,as well as forming stage of modern cultivated soils.The four forming stages are consistent with early Holocene,the beginning of mid-Holocene,optimum mid-Holocene and late Holocene.At the same time,they reflect changes in the environment during the Holocene including climate change,and vegetation evolution under intensive cultivation of human.It should be emphasizld that rice cultivation here has a log history.

    • THE CHARACTERISTICS OF SOIL ELEMENTS IN SALT-AFFECTED SOIL AREA IN QUZHOU, HEBEI

      2002, 39(5):627-635. DOI: 10.11766/trxb200012070503

      Abstract (2164) HTML (0) PDF 2.31 M (2517) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Concentration ranges and characteristics of soil elements in soil(ST),soil 1B1extraction (SE) and soil solution(SS),and their relation with the element concentration in groundwater in Quzhou salt-affected area are studied in this paper.Differences between concentrations of element in SS and that in SE are influenced by water content in the soil.SE/ST ratio of each element and its average and variation coefficient in soil layers can illustrate its solubility and movement ability in a certain extent.The averages of SE in 1 m or 2 m soil profile of most of the elements are correlated significantly with mineralization and concentration of the same element in groundwater.There is no correlation ship between the concentrations in SE and in groundwater of those elements with low migration coefficient.In addition,the characteristics of vertical distribution of concentrations of elements in SE and its relations with the concentrations of elements in groundwater are described by some examples under different levels of salinity condition.

    • CARBON BALANCE IN AGRO-ECOSYSTEM IN QINGHAI-TIBET PLATEAU

      2002, 39(5):636-642. DOI: 10.11766/trxb200011280504

      Abstract (2161) HTML (0) PDF 269.72 K (2999) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:During the period from 1998 to 1999,absorption and emission of CO2 in soil and vegetation system were studied by the static box method used in fields and biomass sampling,in the Lhasa Agro-ecology Station.This experiment was designed to explore carbon balance in the field ecosystem on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and its affecting factors,and disclose its contribution and response to the switch between pool and source of carbonaceous gas in the atmosphere.The CO2 emissions in soil was more than the CO2 assimilation of vegetation in the early wheat growing period(from sowing to jointing),while in the late period (from milking to maturity) the assimilation exceeded the emissions.The annual CO2 emissions in soil were a little more than the annual assimilation of vegetation.

    • STUDY ON GENESIS OF SOILS DERIVED FROM BASALT IN NORTHERN HAINAN ISLAND Ⅲ. ELEMENT GEOCHEMISTRY

      2002, 39(5):643-652. DOI: 10.11766/trxb200010010505

      Abstract (2097) HTML (0) PDF 1.12 M (3065) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:As soil ages,its contents of Sr,Ba and Sr/Be decrease,and the contents of V,Sc,Ni,Cr,Co as well as Fe/Ni and Fe/Co rise,which was discovered in a study on soils of different soil ages,developed on basalts in the north Hainan Island.Ba/Nb,significantly,correlative with soil ages can be used to evaluate soil development.By the mass-balance method to element migration was discussed with Ti as immobile element.The results show that elements leach most extremely in weakly-developed soils.In this period (Entisols),over 90 per cent of Ca,Mg,K and Na were lost,out of solum till ferrosols formation.The leaching of P occurred mainly in the beginning of soil development.About 60 per cent of Si lost in the stage of Cambisols and 80 per cent in the stage of Ferralisols.

    • ESTABLISHMENT AND APPLICATION OF LAND RESOURCES AND ECO-ENVIRONMENT DATABASE——A CASE STUDY ON ZIGUI COUNTY IN THE THREE GORGES AREA

      2002, 39(5):653-663. DOI: 10.11766/trxb200101130506

      Abstract (1971) HTML (0) PDF 1.35 M (2687) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Regional land resources and eco-environment database system (RSEDBS) for Zigui County in the Three Gorges area was established based on computer and GIS technology'spatial database managed by ARC/INFO GIS was shared with attributive database managed by Visual FoxPro through common Identifi cation Code (ID).Model base that includes application models such as DEM,AHP,Fuzzy Mathematics and comprehensive environment index etc were developed using computer program language C++'spatial database,attributive database and model base were integrated by internal and external interfaces and applied in quantitative evaluation of eco-environmental quality of Zigui County.The research results illustrated that towns with better eco-environmental quality mainly lie in southwest mountainous areas with high vegetation coverage,less population and rich rainfall.Whereas,towns with worse eco-environmental quality were mainly located on both sides of Yangtze River with lower vegetation coverage,large population,insufficient rainfall and soil erosion.Therefore,population,resources and environment must be optimized based on rational ecological characteristics to achieve sustainable use of land resources in Zigui County.

    • STUDY ON PHYTOREMEDIATION OF HEAVY METAL POLLUTED SOILS Ⅲ. CADMIUM AND ZINC UPTAKE AND ACCUMULATION BY INDIAN MUSTARD(Brassica juncea)

      2002, 39(5):664-670. DOI: 10.11766/trxb200102190507

      Abstract (2645) HTML (0) PDF 904.40 K (4619) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:A pot experiment with Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea) growing on soils spiked with Zn and Cd was conducted to study metal tolerance and accumulation by B.juncea,and its potential for phytoremediation.Average Zn concentration in the leaves were 280 and 662 mg Kg-1 respectively for 66 days growing in the soil spiked with 500 and 1 000 mg Kg-1 Zn,Zn removed by plant shoots were 2 195 and 3 412 g pot-1,respectively.Average Cd concentration in the leaves was 161 mg Kg-1 in the soil spiked with 200 mg Kg-1 Cd,and Cd removed by the shoots was 381 g pot-1.B.juncea showed a higher ability in translocating Zn and Cd from roots to shoots compared to ordinary crops.NH4NO3 extractable Zn and Cd increased after the growth of B.juncea compared with blank (without plants).Those results can not be fully explained by the natural equilibrium between solid and solution phase.The root exudates possibly involved in incrasing metal solubilisation.It can be concluded that Brassica juncea appeared to be a moderate Zn and Cd accumulator making it suitable for phytoremediation of zinc and cadmium contaminated soil.

    • INFRARED SPECTRAL CHARACTERISTICS OF REACTION OF BORON WITH SEVERAL MINERALS

      2002, 39(5):671-678. DOI: 10.11766/trxb200011170508

      Abstract (2416) HTML (0) PDF 977.96 K (6559) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:IR spectral characteristics of several minerals after boron adsorption or desorption showed that,com pared to the minerals themselves,spectra of boron desorbed from the minerals were similar to those of boron adsorbed,therefore,hysteresis of boron desorption was significant for most of the experimental min erals'spectra of Ca montmorillite and bayerite at 1 400~1 440 cm-1 and 1 600~1 670 cm-1 were alike,which showed that aluminum located at broken edge of Ca montmorillite would reacted with boron'spectra of manganite were similar to bayerite at 1 000 cm-1 and 1 400~1 440 cm-1,and this showed that charac ters of boron adsorption for these two hydroxides were alike.The infrared spectra showed at 1 400~1 440 cm-1 after goethite absorbing boron peaks were enhanced,especially,at 1 000~1 200 cm-1,the absorption peak of tetrahedral boron when boron desorption from goethite significantly occurred.From these we can reason out that boron adsorbed on the mineral may polymerize itself and this process would produce boron polymer in the mineral surface,for example,like borax.

    • CHELATE-ENHANCED PHYTOREMEDIATION OF COPPER POLLUTED SOIL Ⅲ.EFFECTS OF EDTA AND LOW MOLECULE WEIGHT ORGANIC AC IDS

      2002, 39(5):679-685. DOI: 10.11766/trxb200011240509

      Abstract (2357) HTML (0) PDF 1.34 M (3136) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of EDTA and organic acids with lower molecular weight on the properties of soil solution,the form distribution of Cu in the soil and Cu uptake by Indian mustard(Brassica juncea).Results showed that the total concentration of Cu and especially the nonlabile Cu in soil solution significantly increased after the addition of 3 mmol Kg-1 of EDTA,it had a good relationship with the total organic carbon (TOC) in the soil solution.EDTA increased the contents of NH4NO3-extractable and NH4OAc-extractable in the soil solid phase.The addition of EDTA did not affect the growth of Indian mustard,but significantly increased the concentrations of Cu in the leaves,stems and roots of the plants.Therefore,the Cu uptake by Indian mustard was greatly enhanced and the remediation efficiency improved signficantly.The addition of 3 mmol Kg-1 oxalic acid,citric acid or malic acid had no effect on the Cu concentrations in different fractions in the aqueous and solid phase of soil,and on the plant growth and Cu uptake by Indian mustard.

    • EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ON METHANE-OXIDIZING ACTIVI TY IN PADDY SOIL

      2002, 39(5):686-692. DOI: 10.11766/trxb200101110510

      Abstract (2997) HTML (0) PDF 1.04 M (3199) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Effect of environmental factors on oxidation activity of added methane in Huangsong paddy soil developed from fluvo aquic matrix was studied.The results indicated that there existed two methane oxidizing systems found in soil,an aerobic methane oxidizing system (AMOS),and an anaerobic methane oxidizing system(AAMOS).The maximal activity of methane oxidation of AMOS was higher than that of AAMOS.Under aerobic condition,the methane oxidizing activity of AMOS was affected mainly by the contents of oxygen,water,methane and pH,temperature in soil.The methane oxidizing activity of AAMOS,however,was mainly affected by the contents of oxygen,methane,water and also by pH,temperature in soil under anaerobic condition.Oxygen inhibited the activity of methane oxidation of methane oxidizing bacteria of AAMOS.The optimum temperature for methane oxidizing activity lied from 25 to 35.After incubation at 50 for over 6 hours the tested paddy soil was unable to restore the oxidation activity of added methane when incubated again at 28,indicating that oxidation activity of added methane was completed lost.The optimum pH ranged from 6 to 7 for methane oxidizing activity.

    • ADSORPTION OF HERBICIDE PROMETRYNE AND PROMETON ON SOILS AND CORRELATION WITH THEIR CHROMAT-OGRAPHIC THERMODYNAMICS

      2002, 39(5):693-698. DOI: 10.11766/trxb200011140511

      Abstract (1897) HTML (0) PDF 243.51 K (2615) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Adsorption of prometryne and prometon on 6 kinds of soils was measured with the batch equilibration technique.It was found that adsorption isotherms could fit Freundlich equation well.The excess thermodynamic properties of the triazine in liquid chromatography were also studied.The linear relationship between the composition of the mobile phase and triazine's capacity factor was determined.The adsorption in soil showed some relationship with the excess thermodynamic properties.The excess thermodynamic properties might be considered one of the important parameters of pesticide.

    • ADSORPTION OF HEAVY metalions ON Fe-Mn NODULES IN SEVERAL SOILS AND TYPES OF Mn OXIDE MINERALS

      2002, 39(5):699-706. DOI: 10.11766/trxb200011040512

      Abstract (2543) HTML (0) PDF 289.37 K (3967) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Some heavy metalions were strongly adsorbed by Mn oxide minerals in soils and aquatic environment.The results showed that the amount of heavy metals(Pb,Cd,Co,Cu,Ni,Zn) adsorbed by Mn oxide minerals in Fe-Mn nodules in soils from China accounted for 60~100 percentage of the total amount of the heavy metals absorbed by the Fe-Mn nodules.The heavy metals adsorption capacity varied with types of Mn oxide minerals in the Fe-Mn nodules.The amount of heavy metals adsorbed by Mn oxide minerals which contained todorokite and lithiophorite in Fe-Mn nodules of Shajiang black soils in Shandong province was the highest,that of yellow-brown soil and yellow-cinnamon soil in Hubei province with birnessite and lithiophorite next,and that of red soil in Hunan Province which contained only lithiophorite the lowest.Difference in structure and crystallinity of the Mn oxide minerals led to different amounts of heavy metals adsorbed by Mn oxide minerals in the Fe-Mn nodules.The contents of Mn oxide minerals and percentage of Mn(Ⅳ) in nodules affected the amounts of Co2+ adsorbed by Fe-Mn nodules because Co2+ was oxidized to Co3+ in the process of Co2+ adsorption.

    • SELECTIVITY OF POTASSIUM ADSORPTION BY SOILS

      2002, 39(5):707-713. DOI: 10.11766/trxb200011300513

      Abstract (1844) HTML (0) PDF 944.54 K (3066) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Selectivity of K adsorption was studied using an approach of K-Ca exchange equilibrium on soils with a range of chemical and physical properties,including Latosol,Red soil,Lou soil,Black soil,and Paddy soil.The results indicated that the values of KG and KV varied with the ratios of K to Ca in adsorbed phase.The phases of curves suggested that sites differing in affinity for K existed on soil colloids.At low K saturation,the high select ivity for K can be attributed to wedge sites existing in the clay minerals.The number of wedge sites increased in the order of Black soil > Lou soil > Paddy soil > Red soil > Latosol.The number of sites was related to the occurrence of weathered mica and vermiculite.At high K saturation,the K G increased in the order of Latosol > Red soil > Black soil > Lou soil > Paddy soil,which was greatly influenced by the origin of charges on colloids.

    • STUDY ON MICROBIAL DEGRADATION OF BOUND RESIDUES OF METSULFURON-METHYL IN SOIL

      2002, 39(5):714-719. DOI: 10.11766/trxb200108070514

      Abstract (1878) HTML (0) PDF 232.44 K (2606) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Microbial degradation of metsulfuron-methyl by selective Penicillium sp.was studied.The results were shown as follows: During the degradation of various forms of 14C-metsulfuron-methyl in soil,the effect of Penicillium sp.was not obvious to degradation of extractable metsulfuron-methyl,but the effect was very clear to degradation and mineralization of bound residues of metsulfuron-methyl and mineralized metsulfuron-methyl.On bound residues of metsulfuron-methyl,Penicillium sp.selected made the decrease concentration of loose combined metsulfuron-methyl especially to the fulvic acid in it.But organic manure might increase the concentration of loose combined metsulfuron-methyl in some degree.

    • EVALUATION OF THE SOIL SALT DISTRIBUTION CHARACTERISTICS

      2002, 39(5):720-725. DOI: 10.11766/trxb200011210515

      Abstract (1988) HTML (0) PDF 345.07 K (2773) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Soil salt transport experiments were conducted under one-dimensional water ponded infiltration in laboratory.Characteristics of soil water salt transport were investigated.Based on the characteristics of the partial drainage in the salt-affected land.,some characteristic indexes for variation in soil salt were recommended.Their relations with some characteristics of the soil wate-rsalt transport were analyaed in order to provide some guidance for utilization of the saltaffected land rationally.

    • HYDRODYNAMIC MECHANISM ON THE CHANGE OF DIFFERENT FORMS OF A CID IN ACID SULFATE SOIL

      2002, 39(5):726-734. DOI: 10.11766/trxb200110080516

      Abstract (2124) HTML (0) PDF 1.95 M (3107) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:The simulation,aimed to detect the quantitative impact of soil water conditions on the acidification of acid sulfate soil (ASS),was held with 8 treatments.The results indicated that water was an important dynamic mechanism on the change of different forms of acid such as exchangeable H+,exchangeable Al3+,total exchangeable acidity,total sulfuric acidity,total actual acidity,and total potential acidity in ASS.As a result,the changes of water condition would regulate the change of soil acid content.The results also showed that wet but not inundated or over dried ASS was benefit to the formation of exchangeable acidity and total actual acidity.In the treatments of alternation between inundated and drained off,significant acidification happened during the period of aeration drying after drainage,especially at the surface layer of the soil columns.During the inundated periods,the acid forms were relatively stable.The acidity of ASS was discharged in the drainage processes,and the more frequent the altermation was,the larger the total accumulative output and discharge of acidity was.

    • AVAILABILITY OF PHOSPHATES AND EFFECT OF DIFFERENT FORMS OF NITROGENOUS FERTIL IZER

      2002, 39(5):735-742. DOI: 10.11766/trxb200010090517

      Abstract (2295) HTML (0) PDF 313.76 K (3010) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Pot trials were conducted to study on availability of several forms of artificial mineral phosphate in light loam and light clay calcareous Chao soils,and mechanisms of effects of NH4+-N,CO(NH2)2,and NO3-N on their availability.The results showed that the order of the five phosphates in availability in light-loam and light-clayed calcareous Chao soils was as follows respectively: DCP> OCP> Al-P> Fe-P> FA and DCP> Al-P> OCP> Fe-P> FA,consistent with those of the corresponding forms of inorganic in soils.Their availability was markedly affected by forms of nitrogen applied.The availability of Al-P and FA coupled with NH4+-N and CO(NH2)2 in light-clayed soil was obviously higher than that with NO3-N,while application of NO3-N could significantly raised the availability of Fe-P.Their availability varies with nitrogenous form and pH in rhizosphere.

    • SOIL FERTILITY RESTORATION ON DEGRADED UPLAND OF PURPLE SOIL

      2002, 39(5):743-749. DOI: 10.11766/trxb200103110518

      Abstract (2221) HTML (0) PDF 267.09 K (3879) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Soil erosion,soil fertility degeneration and land productivity loss are severe problems in hilly land of purple soil under conventional.tillage.A long-term field experiment was conducted during 1984 to 1996 to determine soil productivity in a typical hilly area of degraded upland of purple soil in Yanting,Sichuan province.Results showed that a conservation tillage system with ridge-furrow and seasonal no-tillage (SNTRCS) increased topsoil depth by 11.8 cm over the conventional tillage.Annual run off and soil loss were 657.7 m3 hm-2 and 530.0 t km-2 respectively,under conservation tillage,and 1 754.0 m3 hm-2 and 3 122.0 t km-2 respectively,under conventional tillage'soil structure and soil physical,chemical and biological properties were also improved when conservation tillage was adopted.Mulching experiments from 1996~1998 showed that mulching increase contents of organic matter and nutrients in the soil,which in turn improved and maintained soil structure.In conclusion,SNTRCS with mulching is suitable for soil and nutrient conservation,and structure amelioration,consequently for restoration of productivity in degraded hilly land of purple soil.

    • >Research Notes
    • TEMPORAL-SPATIAL VARIATION IN NUTRIENT ELEMENT CONTENT IN OVERLAYING SOIL OF RECLAIMED COAL MINE AREA

      2002, 39(5):750-753. DOI: 10.11766/trxb200010040519

      Abstract (1892) HTML (0) PDF 158.67 K (2465) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:抚顺煤矿地处中纬地带,属典型的中温带东亚大陆性季风气候,近十年来年平均气温为4~7℃;年均降雨量为800mm以上;区域地层自下而上为远古代花岗片麻岩层,中生代白垩系紫色页岩及砂页岩层,新生代第三纪含煤层,最上部为新生代第四纪冲积层;地带性土壤为棕壤,隐域性土壤为耕型草甸土,土质疏松细腻,透气性好,保水、保肥能力强;植被类型为以阔叶林为主的针阔叶混交林。抚顺煤矿位于抚顺市浑河南岸冲积平原,是具有近百年历史的我国著名煤矿。

    • STUDY ON STABILITY OF RELATIVE CONCENTRATION RATIOS OF Cu, Pb, Zn IN SOIL

      2002, 39(5):754-758. DOI: 10.11766/trxb200012250520

      Abstract (1926) HTML (0) PDF 746.25 K (2419) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:铜、铅、锌均与硫元素有较强的亲和力,从而使它们具有相似的地球化学性质,并在环境自然体中紧密共生。人们已经认识了铜和锌是人体必需的微量元素,而铅是有害的元素,它们的环境与生物地球化学行为,直接影响到人体的健康。因此,表生环境中的铜、铅、锌始终是研究的热点。

    • STUDY ON MECHANISMS OF SALT RESISTANCE OF CROP Ⅱ.IONIC ABSORPTION AND TRANSLOCATION OF FIVE WHEAT VARIETIES

      2002, 39(5):759-762. DOI: 10.11766/trxb200107290521

      Abstract (1785) HTML (0) PDF 701.03 K (2519) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:我国有着包括沿海滩涂在内的丰富的盐渍土资源。盐渍土开发利用后,通过自然淋盐、人工加速淋盐过程,其总体上向脱盐化方向演进。随着盐渍土脱盐过程的进一步发展,盐渍土的农业种植利用逐渐成为可能。而利用作物的抗性[1,2]可促进盐渍土的农业利用。作物在适应盐渍环境的过程中能产生较强的抗盐力,并形成特定的抗盐机制。盐分胁迫下,作物除易感受盐分离子过多产生的直接毒害外,还易感受土壤溶液中盐分离子浓度过高造成植物生理干旱与作物生长代谢所必需的矿质营养元素竞争性吸收[3,4],从而影响营养元素选择性吸收的有效性。

    • CHARACTERISTICS OF DECOMPOSITION OF LITTER FROM PINE, OAK AND PINE-OAK MIXED FORESTS

      2002, 39(5):763-767. DOI: 10.11766/trxb200010300522

      Abstract (1596) HTML (0) PDF 185.74 K (2401) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:松树(Pinus massoniana Lamb.)和栎树(Quescus variabilis BL.)都是我国广为栽培的树种。长期以来,由于松树林地树种单一,群落结构简单和重复连栽的管理方式,林地环境质量已逐渐退化,存在着明显的地力衰退现象[1,2].栎树是一种落叶阔叶树,其凋落物易分解,营养元素可得到及时的释放和归还,从而栎树林地土壤具有较强的自肥功能。松栎混交林兼有这两种林型的特性。

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