• Volume 45,Issue 5,2008 Table of Contents
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    • >创刊60周年特邀论文
    • IMPROVING KNOWLEDGE OF SOIL, INNOVATING MODERN PEDOLOGY

      2008, 45(5):771-777. DOI: trxb10.11766/200802260501

      Abstract (2021) HTML (0) PDF 710.89 K (3707) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Soil is the base of agricultural production,the keystone that Manrelies on for survival,and the guarantee of food and ecological environmental safety for human beings. With rapid development of the modern science and technology and national socio-economy,the strategic position and functions of soil are undergoing some changes. Proceeding from the relationship between the demand of the development of the national socio-economy and the soil and soil science,the paper points out that the knowledge about the importance of soil has gradually been turning from agricultural production to environmental safety,resource exp loitation,ecological health and global change. At the same time,the paper specifies connotation of the modern soil science,and strategic ideology of the innovative modern soil science,and also comprehensively,systematically and forward-lookingly describes research frontier and characteristics and challenges and prospects in the future of the modern soil science,thus enlightening the direction of development for the modern soil science of China.

    • RESEARCH ON SOIL NITROGEN IN CHINA

      2008, 45(5):778-783. DOI: trxb10.11766/200802280502

      Abstract (4223) HTML (0) PDF 112.13 K (6275) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:A summary is presented of progresses that have been achieved since the 1930s in the research on soil nitrogen(N)in China,covering 1)nature of soil N and soil N fertility,2)N in organic manure,3)the fate and yield-increasing effect of chemical fertilizer-N app lied to agricultural fields,4)impacts on the environment of the losses of chemical fertilizer-N applied to agricultural fields,and 5)N balance in the agricultural ecosystem.It is obvious that the research benefits much from the progresses made in other relevant disciplines. And it is,therefore,stated with emphasis that the guiding ideology of the researchin China must give high attention to harmonization and in tegration of high-yield and environment protection.

    • STUDY OF PREHISTORIC IRRIGATED PADDYS AND ANCIENT PADDY SOILS IN CHINA

      2008, 45(5):784-791. DOI: trxb10.11766/200805090503

      Abstract (1817) HTML (0) PDF 1.13 M (4319) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Rice cultivation in China can be dated back 7 000 years ago,it produces about 40% rice grain and occupies 23% of paddy soils worldwide respectively.Rice is one of the staple foods for Chinese.Comparison study on soil quality of prehistoric,ancient and present paddy soils,to reveal the origin,evolution of irrigated paddy fields and paddy soils in biogeochemistry process as well as the mechanisms of sustainability of irrigated rice paddy ecosystem is very important in theory for soil sciences and to promotion food security of our world,this should be one of the priority area for Chinese soil scientists may make great contribution to it.

    • RETROSPECT AND PROSPECT OF SOIL GEOGRAPHY IN CHINA

      2008, 45(5):792-801. DOI: trxb10.11766/200806110504

      Abstract (2040) HTML (0) PDF 1.10 M (3640) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:The core of soil geography is the study of soil changes in space and time,which aims in the prediction of soil behaviors under various ecosystems and human activities,and in the effective management of soil resources.The development of soil geography in China has experienced several important phases.In 1950s,regional soil reconnaissance survey and natural resource survey had laid a solid foundation for the recognition of the major soil types and their distribution laws.In 1980 s,just after the restoration of the nation's scientific activity,the launch of the second national soil survey programme had boosted the revival of soil geography in China,including almost all aspects of it such as soil genesis, classification,mapp ing and remote sensing.As a project emerged in that period,the study of "Chinese Soil Taxonomy" had prevailed nearly 20 years thereafter and had acted as an important engine of soil geography development in China.

    • ADVANCEMENT IN STUDY ON SOIL EROSION AND SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION

      2008, 45(5):802-809. DOI: trxb10.11766/200808220505

      Abstract (3410) HTML (0) PDF 851.15 K (4680) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Limiting harmonious development of the society,economy and environment,soil erosion has become one of the major environmental problems over the world. Systematic analysis was done of progresses and shortcomings in the study on soil erosion process from the aspects of raindrop splash,process of slope water erosion,transference relationships from runoff discharge to sediment discharge in the slope-gully system and sediment delivery of gully erosion. Abrief sketch was present of the history of the study on prediction of soil erosion. And a summary was made of mechanisms of vegetation and engineering measures regulating soil erosion and their effect on soil-water conservation. Besides,suggestions for future researches on soil erosion and soil-water conservation were put forward to,stating that it is essential to intensify the study in width and depth on such problems that urgently need to be solved,as process and mechanism of soil erosion,model for forecasting soil erosion on a larger scope,evaluation of environmental effect of the management of soil erosion and soil-water loss,sci-tech transformation of the techniques for regulating soil-water loss,etc..

    • CURRENT STATUS, CHALLENGES, AND MISSIONS IN SOIL PHYSICS

      2008, 45(5):810-816. DOI: trxb10.11766/200804300506

      Abstract (2242) HTML (0) PDF 726.76 K (4289) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Soil physics is an essential discipline of natural sciences,and it plays important roles in sustainable agriculture and environmental protection. In this review,we briefly exam ined the current status and trends of soil physics in terms of new theories,new technologies,and research focuses at different scales. We also brought up the significant challenges facing current soil physics researches. Finally we proposed five major topics for soil physics research in China in the next decade:The role of soil physics in sustainable agricultural development,soil structure formation and stability,mass transport and energy transfer in soil,spatial and temporal variation and scaling of soil physical properties and processes, and the coupling mechanisms of soil physical,chemical,and biological processes.

    • SOIL CHEMISTRY SCIENCE IN CHINA AND ITS PERSPECTIVE

      2008, 45(5):817-829. DOI: trxb10.11766/200805080507

      Abstract (2316) HTML (0) PDF 320.89 K (5497) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:A historical retrospect of major achievements in the research of soil chemistry provides theoretical bases of some basic disciplines for sustainable development of soil science in the 21st century. Based on a brief retrospect of the development of the soil chemistry of China,a summary is presented on characteristics,status quo and advancement of soil the chemistry science in China in the past few decades,and a general prospect of this academic field is put on the table as well. After comprehensive analysis,it is concluded that macroscopic regulation of soil should be based on knowledge of soil microscopic properties. Recent development of the in-site observation of soil microscopic properties based on the technology ofmicroscopic spectrumin molecular level, and the giant step forward in the knowledge are the basis of the rapid developmentin the field of soil chemistry in China in past few years. Intercrossing and mutual infiltration between disciplines,such as modern pedology,environmental science,ecology,biogeochemistry,chemistry,biology,and geologic medicine has further developed and expanded the academic field of traditional soil chemistry,and stimulated formation and development of new sub-d isciplines of soil chemistry. It is the major direction of the soil chemistry of China in future development to establish a China-specific theoretic and practical system of variable charge soil chemistry and consummate modern pedological theory from the angle of agricultural production and changes in human habitat and environment.

    • RESEARCH ON SOIL BIOLOGY IN CHINA:RETROASPECT AND PERSPECTIVES

      2008, 45(5):830-836. DOI: trxb10.11766/200805060508

      Abstract (2183) HTML (0) PDF 812.49 K (3293) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Soil organismis a key driving force of soil formation and evolution,and the most active component of a soil ecosystem as well. Based on literatures available of the past decade the world over,status quo of the study of soil biology in China was analyzed,and major progresses of the study was summarized from the angles of soil biology,soil bio-chemistry,soil microbiology,soil-plant system and soil zoology. By taking into consideration the frontier and hot issues of the study on soil science the world over,it is recommended that foci of the study should be p laced on soil biology and global environment changes,soil biology and soil quality,soil biodiversity and its ecological functions,soil microbial met-agenomics and development of active substances,soil pollution and bioremediation,and soil enzymology and metapro-teomic techniques,etc..

    • DEVELOPMENT AND PROSPECT OF THE RESEARCH ON SALT-AFFECTED SOILS IN CHINA

      2008, 45(5):837-845. DOI: trxb10.11766/200806280509

      Abstract (3753) HTML (0) PDF 874.36 K (9198) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Salt-affected soils are extensively distributed in Northwest,North,Northeast and coastal regions in China,and large areas of arable land are salt affected as well. So they are one of the most important low-yield types of soils. Apparently under influences of human activities,their productivity is closely related to their quality. While reviewing the development of the study on salt affected soils in China,the paper analyzed the status quo of the research and recent advancement in major fields of the study,and discussed prospects of the study by referring to the frontiers and hot spots of relevant researches both at home and abroad. The paper also suggested that emphasis be laid on topics of assessment and forecast of prediction of soil salinization,soil salt-water regime and modeling,mechanism of the interaction between plant and soil salt,optimal regulation of soil salt-water regime,management and remediation of soil salinity,eco-environmental impacts of salinization,etc.

    • PROSPECTS OF THE RESEARCH ON BIOGEOCHEMICAL PROCESSES, QUALITY EVOLVEMENT AND RISK MANAGEMENT OF SOIL ENVIRONMENT

      2008, 45(5):846-851. DOI: trxb10.11766/200806220510

      Abstract (1873) HTML (0) PDF 667.01 K (3351) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Based on analysis of the status quo and developmental trend of the study on soil environment at home and abroad,the author suggests in this paper initiation of research on biogeochemical processes,quality evolvement and risk management of soil environment. The author holds that the assumption of soil environment consisting of three parts,internal,interfacial and external ones,is helpful for better understanding of processes,cycling and interaction of pollutants in the soil environment. The author also emphasizes necessity of develop ing integrated interdiscip linary(physio-chem-bio-geoscience)research of soil environment,and discusses potential subjects and prospects of the research from the aspects of the subsystems of soil particle surface-liquid,soil-microorganism s,soil-plant,soil-air,and soil-water in the environment, aiming at promoting the study on evolution rules,regulation and remediation of soil environmental quality on different scales.

    • DEVELOPMENT OF CHEMICAL FERTILIZER INDUSTRY AND ITS EFFECT ON AGRICULTURE OF CHINA

      2008, 45(5):852-864. DOI: trxb10.11766/200805150511

      Abstract (1998) HTML (0) PDF 745.64 K (3763) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Aretrospectis presented of the development of the production and application of chemical fertilizer in China,and changes in soil nutrient balance caused by chemical fertilizer application was explored,with emphasis on progresses in the study on development of new types of fertilizer,mainly referring to stable type fertilizer,compound fertilizer and coated fertilizer. In light of the status quo situation of the chemical fertilizer industry of the country,some problems are pointed out,like existed that were unreasonable product variety structure,lower input involvement load,irrational al-location of unreasomale fertilizer resource,imbalanced ratio of allocation,nutrient input ratio imbalance,slow development of new types of highefficiency fertilizers. Based on analysis of the we analyzedits existing problems,future trend of the development of the chemical fertilizer industry of China is predicted at last gave a prospect on chemical fertilizer developing trend.

    • PROGRESS AND PROSPECTS OF THE RESEARCH ON SOIL GEOLOGY IN CHINA

      2008, 45(5):875-880. DOI: trxb10.11766/200805080513

      Abstract (1936) HTML (0) PDF 129.37 K (2895) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Soil geology is alsomaking new progresses alongwith other disciplines. Based on the review in this paper of major research fields of soil geology,such as soil parent material and soil quality,soil parent material and soil classification,soil geology and agriculture/farmng structure,geological background and soil geochemical cycle,etc.,relationships of soil geology with soil science,geology,environmental geology,agricultural geology,land science and other disciplines,are analyzed;and key research fields and direction of the development of soil geology in future are discussed in a view to promoting development of the study on soil geology.

    • ADVANCES IN AND PROSPECTS OF FOREST SOIL RESEARCH

      2008, 45(5):881-891. DOI: trxb10.11766/200805070514

      Abstract (1940) HTML (0) PDF 1.14 M (4206) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Advancement in and prospect of forest soil research since 1949 are discussed. In the past 60 years,Chinese researchers in this field have been investigating and studying distribution of soil resources in China and physico-chemical properties and bio-activity of the soils,and have developed comprehensive technical and management means for protection and utilization of the resource. At the meantime,while exp loring regulations of the distribution,the researchers have steadily uncovered dynamic rules of the interaction between forest and soil under different site conditions. And based on the principle of coincidence between the functions of a forest soil and its composition,structure and property,the researchers have expounded process of the evolvement of soil quality of forest soils and mechanism of the function with a view to regulate dynam ic variation of forest soil properties for amelioration,maintaining and restoring their function,improving their productivity,and providing scientific basis and valuable managemenrial measures for realization of sustainable development of forest productivity practice.

    • SCIENTIFIC CONNOTATION AND ECOLOGICAL SERVICE FUNCTION OF SOIL MICROBIAL DIVERSITY

      2008, 45(5):892-900. DOI: trxb10.11766/20071230450515

      Abstract (3169) HTML (0) PDF 885.21 K (5779) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Soil microbial diversity is an indicator of species and genes of microbes in the soil ecosystem and their competitive interactions with the environment. The current study in this field is focused mainly on species diversity,genetic diversity,structural diversity and functional diversity. Although the study on soil microbial diversity as a global topic has been carried on forten remaining years,it has displayed features like huge variety of objects,magnitude of contents, broadness in level and novelty in method. However,molecular biological technologies lead and reflect progresses of the research and development of soil microbial ecology. Nowadays,how to improve soil microorganism culturing methods,how to intensify analysis and application of soil metagenomics,how to link soil microbial diversity with service function,and how to expose effect of microhabitat structure on soil microbial diversity,are the four key scientific issues. The basic value of the ecological service functions of soil microbial diversity,of course,lies in decomposing organic matter,recycling nutrients and regulating ecological safety. The study of soil microbial diversity in the years to come should center on its relationship with biological processes and ecological service functions,and establishment of an index system and a methodological system for the study on soil microbial diversity,and elucidation of biological processes of the effect of human activities on soil microbial diversity and its ecological service functions.

    • PERSPECTIVES ON CYCLING AND SEQUESTRATION OF ORGANIC CARBON IN PADDY SOILS OF CHINA

      2008, 45(5):901-914. DOI: trxb10.11766/200805160516

      Abstract (3178) HTML (0) PDF 305.71 K (4632) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:C cycling of soils is a critical process of Earth surface system closely related to global climate change. This review paper summarizes the main achievements of studies on C cycling of paddy soils of China while highlighting the global trends. C cycling processes and the C footprints have been increasingly characterized by means of molecular micro-biology in conjunction with C and N isotopes tracingm ethodologies. Soil productivity and the ecological services are being focused when dealing with C sequestration and mitigation in agriculture. Long-term ecosystem experiments are increasingly involved in monitoring and modeling C cycling and the dynamics. While many studies of C sequestration have demonstrated well the C storage and stock in paddy soils,much attention have been paid to C sequestration processes in scale of micro-aggregates regarding the formation,turnover and the physical protection and trans formation of C input to paddies.

    • NUTRIENT USE EFFICIENCIES OF MAJOR CEREAL CROPS IN CHINA AND MEASURES FOR IMPROVEMENT

      2008, 45(5):915-924. DOI: trxb10.11766/200805200517

      Abstract (6858) HTML (0) PDF 291.74 K (10944) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Nutrient use efficiency is an important index not only for fertilizer recomm endation on the field scale but also for forecasting fertilizer demand on the regional and national scales,however,exact nutrient use efficiencies of the major cereal crops in China are not well known yet.In this paper,data from 1 333 field experiments were collected and used for analysis and evaluation of partial factor productivity(PFP),agronomic efficiency(AE),apparent recovery efficiency (RE)and physiological efficiency(PE)of these crops.Results show that AEN of rice,wheat and maize was 10.4 kg kg-1,7.99 kg kg-1 and 9.80 kg kg-1,respectively,and REN of rice,wheat and maize was 28.3%,28.2% and 26.1%,respectively,obviouslymuch lower than the world's average,whichis attributed to over-use of chemical fertilize,rignorance of contribution of nutrients from the environment and the soil, failure to bring crop yield potential into full play, and inability to inhibit nutrient losses effectively.

    • ORGANIC-LIKE FERTILIZERS AND ITS RELATION TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE AND PROTECTION OF ECO-ENVIRONMENT

      2008, 45(5):925-932. DOI: trxb10.11766/200805160518

      Abstract (2768) HTML (0) PDF 582.50 K (5423) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:With rapid development of the agriculture and the rural economy in China,organic manure in the traditional sense has become solid organic wastes that are disposed everywhere,which leads towaste of large volumes of nutrient resources,and severe pollution of the environment, as well. Areview is presented of the recent advancementin the research and development of organic-like fertilizers,with emphasis on introduction of the latestmature production technology and the technology for application of organic-like fertilizers.The paper not only puts forth some subjects and some clues for research on development of organic-like fertilizers,but also provides technical support for development of organic-like fertilizer industry and an effective approach to sustainable development of the agriculture in China.

    • >Research Articles
    • DISTRIBUTION CHARACTERISTICS OF SOIL ORGANIC CARBON STORAGE AND DENSITY ON THE QINGHAI-TIBET PLATEAU

      2008, 45(5):933-942. DOI: trxb10.11766/200701180519

      Abstract (2763) HTML (0) PDF 1.71 M (4278) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Based on the 1:1 000 000 scale soil database of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau,the data from the second national soil survey and the data measured by the author,soil organic carbon storages and densities in the organic horizon, mineral horizon,and whole profile of the soil in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau were estimated.It was shown that the average soil organic carbon density was estimated around C 7.2 kg m-2,a little lower compared with the national average soil organic carbon density,C 8.01~19.05 kg m-2 obtained by the previous researches,and the soil organic carbon storage about 18.37 Pg,of which 38.14% was stored in the organic horizon,and 61.86% in the mineral horizon.

    • INFLUENCE OF SOIL WATER REGIME ON SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF AGGREGATES AND CONCENTRATION OF ORGANIC CARBON THEREIN IN PADDY SOILS DEVELOPED FROM PURPLE SOILS

      2008, 45(5):943-949. DOI: trxb10.11766/200711290520

      Abstract (1984) HTML (0) PDF 332.58 K (2332) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Aggregation and soil organic carbon(SOC)concentration representintegrated effects of soil type,environment,plant species,and soil management practices.This study was conducted to assess effect of water regime on size distribution of soil aggregates and C concentrations therein in paddy soils developed under different water conhditions from purple soils in a purple hilly area of the Sichuan basin.The labile organic carbon,microorganism biomass carbon,water dissolved carbon,and organic carbon concen trationin aggregates of different sizes gained by the wetting sieve method were deter mined.The content of aggregates >2 mm in diameter was the highestin the cultivated horizon of gleyed paddy soils and percogenic paddy soils,being 76.65% and 75.92%,respectively,and only 13.10% in the cultivated horizon of sub-mergeric paddy soil.

    • EFFECT OF CULTIVATION HISTORY ON DISTRIBUTION OF ORGANIC CARBON AND STRUCTURE OF HUMUS IN PADDY SOILS

      2008, 45(5):950-956. DOI: trxb10.11766/200704040521

      Abstract (1867) HTML (0) PDF 1.03 M (2864) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Distribution of organic carbon was studiedin soil profiles and organo-mineral complex,different in particle size,samp led from paddy fields varying in cultivation history,50,100,500,700,1 000 and 2 000 years in Cixi City, Zhejiang Province.Effect of long-term cultivation on structure and functional groups of humus in paddy soils was explored with the aid of infrared spectrum(IR).It seemed that cultivation history did not have much effect on organic carbon content in top soil of the paddy fields.Organic carbon content of the soil layers,30 to 60 cmin depth increased gradually with the cultivation history,but the range(Δ)of the variation of soil organic carbon reserves between two paddy soil layers,0~40 cm and 40~80 cmin depth respectively,decreased gradually.The findings show that paddy soils cultivated.

    • RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ENVIRONMENT FACTORS AND TOPSOIL SALT ACCUMULATION IN SEMI-ARID REGIONS IN CHINA

      2008, 45(5):957-963. DOI: trxb10.11766/200701260522

      Abstract (1808) HTML (0) PDF 824.40 K (3418) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Field experiments were carried out to study relationship between environment factors(evaporation,rain fall, near ground air temperature and relative humidity of orchards,soil temp erature and soilmo isture)and salt accumulation in topsoil in semiarid regions of Qin'an County of Gansu.Results indicate that total salt contents in different soil layers increased with the increase in potential cumulative evaporation amount under the in tegrated effect of environmental factors,showing a positive relationship.With a rising soil temperature,salt accumulation in all the soil layers showed a rising trend.A similar trend was also observed when soil moisture increasedin the soil layers of 0~2 cm,2~5 cm,and 5~10 cm,but a reverse trend appeared with soil moisture rising in the soil layers of 15~20 cm and 20~25 cm.

    • MULTI-TIME SCALE ANALYSIS ON FLUCTURATION OF THE ACREAGE OF CULTIVATIED LAND AND ITS DRIVING FORCES——A CASE STUDY OF JIANGSU PROVINCE

      2008, 45(5):964-970. DOI: trxb10.11766/200704120523

      Abstract (1801) HTML (0) PDF 860.87 K (3554) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Jiangsu province is one of the most-densely populated regions,fastestin economic growth and mostintensive in land use.The contradiction between land shortage and rapid economic development has become an nonnegligible problem that restrains sustainable development of the regions.Wavelet analysis is adopted to study characterization of the change and its driving mechanism in acreage of cultivated land of Jiangsu Province,by using the data from 1978 to 2004. Results show that 1)the flucturation of cultivated area in Jiangsu Province is characterized by 52 year,132 year and 272 year time scales,and subjected to two factors on the 15a time scale and mainly to GDP on the 27a time scale,both negatively; 2)the acreage of cultivated land will keep on losing but with a reducing rate as a result of increasing attention from the State to the issue of shrinking cultivated area and promulgation and im plementation of a series of land regulation policies.

    • >创刊60周年特邀论文
    • SOIL SCIENCE EDUCATION IN CHINA:PRESENT AND FUTURE

      2008, 45(5):965-874. DOI: trxb10.11766/200805160512

      Abstract (1875) HTML (0) PDF 440.37 K (3261) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:China has seen rapid development of the soil science educationin the higher educationinstitutions since 1978,especially in the 1990 s Presently a complete higher education system in the field of soil science has come into shape,formed of colleges,universities and researchin stitutions providing educationin all related disciplines to undergrauates,MSc and Ph D students,including cultivation of talents of academic and applied type. The systemis bas ically ad equate to satisfy the need of the country for soil scientists and profess ionals in national economic and social development. However,with the n ation faced withissues of grain security and human health,and increasing pressure on resources and environment,the soil science education should be able to supply the nation with elites of high quality to satisfy its need in main taining susta inable development of the agriculture and the rural areas.

    • >Research Articles
    • EFFECTS OF DEM RESOLUTION ON MULTI-FACTOR LINEAR SOIL-LANDSCAPE MODELS AND THEIR APPLICATION IN PREDICTIVE SOIL MAPPING

      2008, 45(5):971-977. DOI: trxb10.11766/200705040524

      Abstract (2408) HTML (0) PDF 1.15 M (2562) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:In order to investigate effects of DEM resolution on soil-landscape models and their application in predictive soil mapping,multi-factor linear soil-landscape models were built up based on DEMs,varying in resolution,5 m,10 m, 15 m,20 m,25 m,and 30 m,of the studied zone(4 km×3 km)a typical subtropical hilly area,and then applied to predictive mapping of organic matter content in top soil.Results indicated,slope,curvatures,natural logarithm of specific catchment area tended to concentrate with the decrease in DEM resolution.The variation of terrain attributes didn't affect much on the simulation coefficients of the models,but it did accuracy of the models in predictive mapping.All the indexes demonstrate that the model was higher in mapping accuracy when the DEM resolution was 10~25 m than when it was others. The findings may be extrapolated to other subtropical hilly areas.

    • THERMODYNAMICS AND KINETICS OF NORFLOXACIN ADSORPTION IN TYPICAL SOILS OF CHINA

      2008, 45(5):978-986. DOI: trxb10.11766/200705170525

      Abstract (1821) HTML (0) PDF 628.92 K (3176) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Batch equilibrium experiments(OECD Guideline 106)were conducted to study therm odynamics and kinetics of norfloxacin(NOR)adsorption in four kinds of soils,namely Ustic Cambosols collected from Fengqiu of Henan, Ali-Perudic Ferrosols collected from Yingtan of Jiangxi, Gleyic-Stagnic Anthrosols collected from Changshu and Udic Argosols collected from Nanjing of Jiangsu.Results show that mechanism of NOR sorption in the four tested soils is controlled to a certain extent by pH of soil solution.With rising temperature(-88K,-98K and 308K),Fruendlich coefficients(Kf) of NOR sorption decreased in all the four soils and the change in enthalpy(v Hb)was significant at low soil pH and relatively slight at high soil pH,which was coincident with the results obtained from the four soils with pH adjusted with sodium hydroxide or hydrochloric acid solution.Forces of NOR sorption in the four soils varied greatlywith pH,so that different sorption behaviors were observed.At low pH(5.20~6.14),ion exchange and hydrogen bond predominated NOR sorption process;while at high pH(7.78~8.20),weaker Vander waals interaction and Hydrophobic bond were the control factors.Moreover,NOR sorption in the soils reached equilibrium quickly and the kinetics of NOR adsorption was best described by Elovich model and two-constant equation.

    • Cd ACCUMULATION IN DIFFERENT CHINESE CABBAGE SEEDLINGS UNDER Cd STRESS

      2008, 45(5):987-993. DOI: trxb10.11766/200705140526

      Abstract (1844) HTML (0) PDF 1.09 M (2845) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:A hydroponic experiment was conducted to investigate differences in Cd accumulation in shoots of Chinese cabbage at the seedling stage between 13 cultivars.Results indicate that Cd contents in shoot and root varied sharply with the cultivars,among which,Cabbage 603 had a lower Cd contentin shoots(104.7 mg kg-1 )and showed a higher Cd tolerance index,suggesting that this cultivar grown in slightly polluted soil posed less risk to food chain.It was also found that contents and composition of chlorophyll also varied significantly between cultivars different in tolerance index,under Cd stress.

    • ECO-RISK ASSESSMENT AND BIOREMEDIATION OF PETROLEUM CONTAMINATED SOIL Ⅲ.PHYTO-MICROBIAL REMEDIATION OF PETROLEUM CONTAMINATED SOIL

      2008, 45(5):994-999. DOI: trxb10.11766/200702130527

      Abstract (2077) HTML (0) PDF 854.98 K (3376) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:A microcosmic experiment was carried out to evaluate effects of nutrients,citrate,tillage and special inocula on bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soils.Results show that indigenous microbial population,especially hydrocarbon-degrader,and petroleum removing rate increased significantly with addition of nutrients.But inoculation,addition of citrate and tillage did not show much effect on degrading rate.After 120 days of remediation,pennisetum and alfalfa were planted to study their effects on petroleum degradation,and results show that pennisetum significantly increased petroleum removal rate.In addition,denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis(DGGE)was used to study biodiversity of the bacteria in the soil after bioremediation.The p rofiles of PCR-DGGE revealed differences in microbial community structure between treatments and a higher level of bacterial diversity in treated soils than in the control as was estimated by counting the total number of bands visualized.

    • RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOIL ENZYME ACTIVITY AND SOIL FERTILITY OF PADDY FIELDS UNDER WHEAT-RICE CROPPING SYSTEM IN A LONG-TERM EXPERIMENT IN TAIHU LAKE REGION

      2008, 45(5):1000-1006. DOI: trxb10.11766/200703050528

      Abstract (2410) HTML (0) PDF 813.19 K (2902) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Principal component analysis was used to study relationship between soil enzyme activity and soil fertility of paddy fields under the wheat-rice cropping system in a 25-year long-term experiment in the Taihu region.Results show that significant linear relationship was observed of soil fertility factors with the activities of urease,acid phosphatase,alkaline phospatase,β-glucosidase,and arylsulfatase,especially acid phosphatase and β-glucosidase,which showed significant or extremely significant linear relations with pH,available N,available P and organic matter.Analysis was carried out of the 14 treatments of the experiment and soil enzyme activities and fertility factors therein,and main factor groups affecting soil fertility were screened out for comprehensive evaluation.The evaluation reveals that soil enzyme activities may be cited as important indexes reflecting soil fertility,and phosphatase,arylsulfatase andβ-glucosidase are better than urease in this function.Combined app lication of N and P fertilizers is the optimal soil building mode.Addition of phosphate fertilizer in fertilization can increase soil fertility.No fertilization or application of organic manure only will lead to degradation of soil fertility.Straw incorporation can improve soil fertility in the wheat season,but has no obvious effect in the rice season.

    • EFFECTS OF MOWING PRACTICES ON SOIL MITE COMMUNITY IN ALKALINIZED GRASSLAND OF LEYMUS CHINENSIS IN SONGNEN PLAIN

      2008, 45(5):1007-1014. DOI: trxb10.11766/200702160529

      Abstract (1850) HTML (0) PDF 980.71 K (2821) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Effects of mowing practices on soil mite community in alkalinized grassland of leymus chinensis in the Songnen Plain were studied from May to October in 2005,with reference to community paraments such as generic richness, abundance,biodiversity,MI(Mesostigmata),and MGP(Oribatid).A total of 1 515 soil mite individuals was collected, belonging to 3 sub-orders,61 genera.The results indicated that the number of soil mite individuals was significantly lower in Treatment MP(Mowing Practice)than in Treatment FE(Fencing enclosure),and the difference in diversity(H' index and SR index)between MP and FE were also significant.The results also suggested that MP mainly decreased the proportion of k-selection groups of soil mites(Mesostigmata)and obviously affected living of Macropyline group(Oribatid).

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