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  • 1  NUTRIENT USE EFFICIENCIES OF MAJOR CEREAL CROPS IN CHINA AND MEASURES FOR IMPROVEMENT
    Zhang Fusuo Wang Jiqing Zhang Weifeng Cui Zhenling Ma Wenqi Chen Xinping Jiang Rongfeng
    2008, 45(5):915-924. DOI: trxb10.11766/200805200517
    [Abstract](6817) [HTML](0) [PDF 291.74 K](10844) [Cited by](632)
    Abstract:
    Nutrient use efficiency is an important index not only for fertilizer recomm endation on the field scale but also for forecasting fertilizer demand on the regional and national scales,however,exact nutrient use efficiencies of the major cereal crops in China are not well known yet.In this paper,data from 1 333 field experiments were collected and used for analysis and evaluation of partial factor productivity(PFP),agronomic efficiency(AE),apparent recovery efficiency (RE)and physiological efficiency(PE)of these crops.Results show that AEN of rice,wheat and maize was 10.4 kg kg-1,7.99 kg kg-1 and 9.80 kg kg-1,respectively,and REN of rice,wheat and maize was 28.3%,28.2% and 26.1%,respectively,obviouslymuch lower than the world's average,whichis attributed to over-use of chemical fertilize,rignorance of contribution of nutrients from the environment and the soil, failure to bring crop yield potential into full play, and inability to inhibit nutrient losses effectively.
    2  EFFECTS OF ZERO-TILLAGE AND APPLICATION OF MANURE ON SOIL MICROBIAL BIOMASS C, N, AND P AFTER SIXTEEN YEARS OF CROPPING
    Xu Yang-chun Shen Qi-rong Ran Wei
    2002, 39(1):89-96. DOI: 10.11766/trxb200103110113
    [Abstract](3801) [HTML](0) [PDF 969.73 K](6171) [Cited by](264)
    Abstract:
    The effects of tillage and manure application on soil microbial biomass carbon(MBC),microbial biomass nitrogen(MBN),and microbial biomass phosphorus(MBP)were investigated in a field experiment,which consisted of two main treatments of conventional tillage and zero-tillage and five sub-treatments of control(no fertilizers),chemical fertilizers,chemical fertilizers plus straw,chemical fertilizers plus green manure,and chemical fertilizers plus pig manure and had continued for 16 years at the farm of Jurong Agricultural Science Institute.The crop rotation of the experiment was summer rice(Oryza Sativa L.)and winter wheat(Triticum aestivum).The results showed that MBC and MBN in zero-tillage treatment increased by 25.4% and 45.4%,respectively compared to those in conventional tillage treatment in 0~5cm depth layer after 16 years.However,there were no significant differences of MBC,MBN,and MBP in subsoil(5~10cm)between conventional tillage and zero-tillage.Although the application rate of N,P,and K in each sub-treatment were equal,the contents of MBC,MBN,and MBP in 0~5cm and 5~10cm depth layer followed the order in the treatments:fertilizers plus pig manure>fertilizers plus straw>fertilizers plus green manure>chemical fertilizers>control.
    3  CALCULATION AND ANALYSIS ON ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINTS OF CHINA
    Xu Zhong-min Cheng Dong-jing Zhang Zhi-qiang Cheng Guo-dong
    2002, 39(3):441-445. DOI: 10.11766/trxb200107130321
    [Abstract](2498) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.43 M](4548) [Cited by](246)
    Abstract:
    自可持续发展的概念提出以来,科学家们一直在研究衡量可持续发展状态的指标和方法以支持可持续发展的决策。生态足迹的研究方法是1992年William Rees和他的学生Wackernagel提出并于1996年完善的。生态足迹是指按可持续发展方式,支持给定数量的人口消费所需要的生物生产型土地面积[1]。由于是采用看得见的足迹来反映人类消费对自然的影响,生态足迹研究方法自提出以来,已经得到了广泛地应用[2]。本文旨在用当前国际上流行的生态足迹理论,来定量衡量中国的可持续发展状况。
    4  RESEARCH ON SOIL NITROGEN IN CHINA
    Zhu Zhaoliang
    2008, 45(5):778-783. DOI: trxb10.11766/200802280502
    [Abstract](4197) [HTML](0) [PDF 112.13 K](6249) [Cited by](201)
    Abstract:
    A summary is presented of progresses that have been achieved since the 1930s in the research on soil nitrogen(N)in China,covering 1)nature of soil N and soil N fertility,2)N in organic manure,3)the fate and yield-increasing effect of chemical fertilizer-N app lied to agricultural fields,4)impacts on the environment of the losses of chemical fertilizer-N applied to agricultural fields,and 5)N balance in the agricultural ecosystem.It is obvious that the research benefits much from the progresses made in other relevant disciplines. And it is,therefore,stated with emphasis that the guiding ideology of the researchin China must give high attention to harmonization and in tegration of high-yield and environment protection.
    5  DEVELOPMENT AND PROSPECT OF THE RESEARCH ON SALT-AFFECTED SOILS IN CHINA
    Yang Jingsong
    2008, 45(5):837-845. DOI: trxb10.11766/200806280509
    [Abstract](3734) [HTML](0) [PDF 874.36 K](9127) [Cited by](189)
    Abstract:
    Salt-affected soils are extensively distributed in Northwest,North,Northeast and coastal regions in China,and large areas of arable land are salt affected as well. So they are one of the most important low-yield types of soils. Apparently under influences of human activities,their productivity is closely related to their quality. While reviewing the development of the study on salt affected soils in China,the paper analyzed the status quo of the research and recent advancement in major fields of the study,and discussed prospects of the study by referring to the frontiers and hot spots of relevant researches both at home and abroad. The paper also suggested that emphasis be laid on topics of assessment and forecast of prediction of soil salinization,soil salt-water regime and modeling,mechanism of the interaction between plant and soil salt,optimal regulation of soil salt-water regime,management and remediation of soil salinity,eco-environmental impacts of salinization,etc.
    6  EFFECT OF MATCHING USE OF STRAW AND CHEMICAL FERTILIZER ON SOIL FERTILITY
    Lao Xiu-rong Sun Wei-hong Wang Zhen Hao Yan-ru Zhang Chang-ai
    2003, 40(4):618-623. DOI: 10.11766/trxb200111300421
    [Abstract](3025) [HTML](0) [PDF 230.48 K](5776) [Cited by](187)
    Abstract:
    Experiment was carried out with flouvo-aguic soils of low fertility coming from Qihe,Shandong Province.The results of 15 years application showed that matching use of straw and chemical fert ilizer is an effective measure to increase yield and improve soil fertility.As straw application rate at the range of 2250,4500,6750 kg hm-2,the accumulation of O.M.,available nutrient and activity of urease have markedly positive correlation to amount of straw and are effected by climate,growing season,soil texture et al.
    7  EFFECT OF COMBINED APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURE AND FERTILIZERS ON CROP YIELD AND SOIL FERTILITY IN A LOCATED EXPERIMENT
    Liu Xinglan Gao Zong Liu Cunshou Si Lizheng
    1996, 33(2):138-147. DOI: 10.11766/trxb199407060204
    [Abstract](2355) [HTML](0) [PDF 643.85 K](4611) [Cited by](160)
    Abstract:
    Effects of combined application of organic manure and chemical fertilizers on crop yields,Soil fertility and nutrient balance were studied systematically according to the results of a 13-year located experiment.The results show that the basic productivity of lou soil in Guanzong could be kept in a shorter period of time.The amounts of soil nutrients supplied for corn were higher than those for wheat.So,the application of N and P in combination with organic manure would be an efficient way for raising crop fields and soil fertility in irrigated area.
    8  STUDY ON SOIL SPATIAL VARIABILITY
    Zhou Huizhen Gong Zitong J. Lamp
    1996, 33(3):232-241. DOI: 10.11766/trxb199512300302
    [Abstract](2978) [HTML](0) [PDF 556.66 K](4761) [Cited by](150)
    Abstract:
    The study was carried out on the basis of a detailed scale in a 30 km2 test aera by using all available site and layer data of main and mini pits with the grids of 30m by 30m or 50m by 50m.This paper describes the punctual and areal variability of the soils in the main test area by the result from;——Frequency distribution of attribute values from all the observations;——Variogram analyses of layer depth,colour,pH,available P,and K of all the topsoil samples from three subareas(Y.D.F);——Kriging iraterpolation and construction of isoline maps for the attributes of subarea Y.All the studywork was performed on a GIS system supported by a microcomputer and the softwares ARC/INFO,IDRISI,dBASE and GEOEAS.
    9  COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION OF SOIL FERTILITY IN THE HILLY AND MOUNTAINOUS REGION OF SOUTHEASTERN CHINA
    Sun Bo Zhang Taolin Zhao Qiguo
    1995, 32(4):362-369.
    [Abstract](2575) [HTML](0) [PDF 2.68 M](5237) [Cited by](142)
    Abstract:
    An evaluation method of soil integrated fertility was developed and used for evaluating soil fertility in the hilly and mountainous region of Southeastern China,with soil fertility being considered as a com plex of the state the capacity to regulate and transform the materials needed by of soil nutrients and plants.With systematic principle and the data of the Second National Soil General Survey,11 indexes were divided into two groups representing,separately,states of sail nutrients and environments of nutrient supplying,involving content of soil orgasie matter,total N,total P2O5,total K2O,available P2O5 available K2O,pH, CEC,physical clay,silt-clay ratio and thickness of epipedon.Then two types of membership functions of these indexes,S-type and parabola-type,were developed based on their effects on plants.Their values of function were also calculated. Through factor analysis of these vslucs with software STATGRAPHICS,weight values of these indexes were decided.Finally,IFI (Integrated Fertility Index) of different soils was calculated according to addition-multiplication principle.
    10  STUDY ON FRACTAL FEATURES OF SOIL AGGREGATE STRUCTURE UNDER DIFFERENT MANAGEMENT PATTERNS
    Wu Cheng-zhen Hong Wei
    1999, 36(2):162-167. DOI: 10.11766/trxb199706200203
    [Abstract](2375) [HTML](0) [PDF 383.63 K](4098) [Cited by](137)
    Abstract:
    The status of soil aggregates is an important factor affecting soil fertility.In this work,the fractal model was used to study the soil aggregate structure under different stand management patterns and to inquiry the relation between fractal dimension and soil fertility.The results indicated that the higher the content of water stable aggregates and water stable big aggregates in soil,the smaller the fractal dimension of soil aggregates,and the higher the soil fertility.There were remarkable regression relationships between the fractal dimension of soil aggregates and the contents of water stable aggregates and water stable big aggregates.The fractal model could be a new tool for the research on soil fertility.
    11  ORGANIC CARBON DENSITY AND STORAGE IN SOILS OF CHINA AND SPATIAL ANALYSIS
    Xie Xianli Sun Bo Zhou Huizhen Li Zhongpei Li Anbo
    2004, 41(1):35-43. DOI: 10.11766/trxb200301140106
    [Abstract](4715) [HTML](0) [PDF 423.87 K](7956) [Cited by](136)
    Abstract:
    Soil organic C plays an essential role in carbon cycle and carbon storage in a native ecosystem reflects that ecosystem.s capacity to sequester carbon.Based on soil map of China(1:4 000 000)combined with a soil database from the second soil survey of China,soil organic carbon storage to the depths of 100 cm and 20 cm were estimated for China using geographical information system.Carbon density of different soil types ranged from 1.19 kg m-2 to 176.46 kg m-2 at depth of 100 cm,and from 0.27 kg m-2 to 53.46 kg m-2 at depth of 20 cm.In total,about 84.4 Pg was stored in 0~100 cm,and 27.4 Pg in the 0~20 cm soil layer.The amount of carbon varied significantly at different districts in China.Northeast China, the south and east of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and southwest China had high carbon density.Tarim Basin,Caidam Basin,Junggar Basin and other desert ification districts had low carbon density.This distribution showed an important climatic influence.Soil organic carbon would diminish with decreasing precipitation and increasing temperature.On the other hand,the activities of human beings may affect the range of soil carbon.
    12  CONTENTS AND DISTRIBUTION OF SOME HEAVY METAL ELEMENTS IN THE VEGETABLE CULTIVATED SOILS IN CHINA
    Zhang Min Gong Zitong
    1996, 33(1):85-93. DOI: 10.11766/trxb199403250110
    [Abstract](2073) [HTML](0) [PDF 611.50 K](4225) [Cited by](132)
    Abstract:
    The total and available contents of several heavy metal elements in thirty-seven Profiles of Fimus soils, different vegetable cultivated mellow soils and corresponding grain crop soils derived from different original soils in China were studied. The distribution characteristics of heavy metals, the relationships between total and available element contents, between elements and some soil properties, and among elements were elucidated. Results showed that as the ripening degree increased, there was an evident increase tendency of increase in the contents of Zn, Pb, Cu and Cd. Total and available metal element contents decreased with the soil depth. In Fimus soils, the elemental contents were higher in the upper horizon of 0 to 40 cm and decreased dramatically below the transitional horizons due to the thicker fimic epipedons. In the moderately and slightly ripening vegetable cultivated soils, element contents were higher only in the surface horizons and decreased sharply below surface horizons, but there were no evident changes in the profiles of grain crop soils.
    13  RHIZOSPHERE DYNAMICS AND PLANT NUTRITION
    Zhang Fusuo Cao Yiping
    1992, 29(3):239-250.
    [Abstract](1984) [HTML](0) [PDF 3.08 M](5175) [Cited by](128)
    Abstract:
    The availability of mineral nutrients for plants is determined by the chemical, physical and biological characteristics of soils, especially by root-induced changes in the rhizosphere. Mineral nutrient supply to the root surface is mediated mainly by mass flow or diffusion. Accordingly, root surface area is important for the acquisition of nutrients. Acquisition of most nutrients is particularly dependent upon root-induced changes in rhizosphere pH, redox potential and the release of low molecular weight organic solutes. Depending on their chemical nature, these solutes can mobilise mineral nutrients directly, in the case of organic acids and phytosiderophores, or indirectly, by enhancing the activity of microorgpnisms in the rhizosphere. Rhizosphere microorganisms may, however, also decrease nutrient availability or affect nutrient acquisiton via changes in root morphology caused by hormones or by the infection of plant roots with mycorehiza. Root-induced changes in the rhizosphere vary between genotypes, and are affected by the nutritional status of the plant (e.g. phosphorus or iron deficiency). The extent of root-induced changes in the rhizosphere is important for adaptation of higher plants to soils with extreme themical and physical properties.
    14  PRODUCTIVITY DYNAMIC OF ALFALFA AND ITS EFFECTS ON WATER ECO-ENVIRONMENT
    Li Yu-shan
    2002, 39(3):404-411. DOI: 10.11766/trxb200007270316
    [Abstract](2643) [HTML](0) [PDF 776.80 K](3900) [Cited by](128)
    Abstract:
    The emphasis of this study is laid on effect of alfalfa growth on soil water eco environment based on data obtained from actual measurements in a long term experiment.At first, yield of fresh alfalfa and its change with the growth life, and the relationship between grass yield and precipitation were analysed.Then, the signif icance of measuring soil water at depth for calculating consumption and revealing effects of alfalfa on water eco environment were presented.Difference in calculating soil depth resultsed in different conclusions in analysis of effects on water eco environment.It pointed out that in the Loess Plateau the annual consumption is more than the annual precipitation for alfalfa which has deep roots more than 10 meters.Therefore cont inual growth of alfalfa can lead to desiccation and form a desiccative layer below the upper soil layer, which affects the way of water cycle on land.It is concluded that in order to slow down or prevent formation of the drying layer an appropriate productivity goal of grassland should be set and relevant agricultural technological measures are proposed.
    15  ROLES OF SOIL ORGANISMS ON THE ENHANCEMENT OF PLANT AVAILABILITY OF SOIL PHOSPHORUS
    Zhang Bangui Li Gui-tong
    1998, 35(1):104-111. DOI: 10.11766/trxb199508270115
    [Abstract](2674) [HTML](0) [PDF 2.56 M](4829) [Cited by](127)
    Abstract:
    In this paper, the authors summarized briefly the retention of phosphorus by soil constituents. Roles of soil.microorganisms, plant roots, mycorrhizae and earthworms in the enhancement of plant availability of soil phosphorus are reviewed. The mobilization of soil phosphorus by soil biota involved mainly solubilization of insoluble inorganic phosphorus by excretion of protons and organic acids, and hydrolysis of organic phosphorus by phosphatases. The processes of phosphorus mobilization were regulated by the equilibrium between soil phosphorus supply and plant P demand. In the last part, possibilities of alternatives of P fertilizers are discussed. It was suggested that by increasing soil biota population and activity soil phosphorus supply could be in sychronization with plant phosphorus demand.
    16  APPLICATION OF FUZZY MATHEMATICS TO SOIL QUALITY EVALUATION
    Wang Jian-guo Yang Lin-zhang Shan Yan-hong
    2001, 38(2):176-183. DOI: 10.11766/trxb200008290205
    [Abstract](2723) [HTML](0) [PDF 492.86 K](5525) [Cited by](125)
    Abstract:
    In view of some unresolved key methodological problems (such as defining diagnostic criteria of evaluation factors, single factor evaluation and integrated evaluation of soil quality) in soil quality evaluation at present in China and being due to fuzziness in soil quality evaluation, this paper puts forward the idea and methods for establishing single factor evaluation and integrated evaluation models by applying fuzzy mathematics. The evaluation models are applied and verified with satisfactory results.
    17  SOIL NUTRIENTS, MICROORGANISMS AND ENZYME ACTIVITIES OF DIFFERENT STANDS
    Xue Li Kuang Li-gang Chen Hong-yue Tan Shao-man
    2003, 40(2):280-285. DOI: 10.11766/trxb200103200218
    [Abstract](2788) [HTML](0) [PDF 233.56 K](5350) [Cited by](123)
    Abstract:
    The nutrient concentrations, microorganisms and enzyme activities of soil in pure Eucalypyus urophylla, Acacia mangium, Tectona grandis, Taxodium distichum stands and in mixed stands of Castanopsisfissa and Pinus elliottii, Schima wallichii and Pinus elliottii, Castanopsis fissa and Pinus caribaea were studied. The results show that compared with P. massoniana stand, A. mangium, T. grandis, T. distichum stands and mixed stands with conifer and broadleaf tree could increase organic matter content and improve the nutrient status of soil, whereas the effect of E. urophylla changed with nutrient type. The microorganism amount of P. massoniana stand soil was bigger than those of mixed stand soil of C. fissa and P. elliottii and pure stand soil of E. urophylla, but it was smaller than those of other stand soils. Except for E. urophylla stand soil and A. mangium stand soil, the enzyme activities of other stand soils were bigger than those of P. massoniana stand soil. In a word, E. urophylla was not good at improving soil fertility, whereas other stands could improve soil fertility.
    18  LAND REMEDIATION AND ECOLOGICAL RESTORATION OF MINED LAND
    Wong Ming-hong Luo Yong-ming
    2003, 40(2):161-169. DOI: 10.11766/trxb200210100201
    [Abstract](3476) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.34 M](7031) [Cited by](120)
    Abstract:
    This paper reviews research and management of remediation and restoration of mined land in China aiming at promotion of theoretical innovation and technological development in this research field of China. The review is made mainly in view of soil science and ecology in mined land, including the following seven sections: (1) the development background during last 50 years;(2) the limitation factors for remediation and restoration;(3) physical and chemical remediation of degraded soil;(4) phytostabilisation and phytoextraction of metal polluted soil;(5) microbial animal enhanced remediation of polluted and degraded soil;(6) the technological requirements for utilization and management of remediated mined land;and (7) future research and development in field of mined land remediation and eco restorat ion in China.
    19  EFFECTS OF ORGANIC MANURE ON THE AMELIORATION OF CD-POLLUTED SOIL
    Zhang Ya-li Shen Qi-rong Jiang Yang
    2001, 38(2):212-218. DOI: 10.11766/trxb200003240209
    [Abstract](2899) [HTML](0) [PDF 486.17 K](4128) [Cited by](118)
    Abstract:
    Incubation and pot experiments were carried out to study the effect of organic manure on the amelioration of Cd-polluted soil. The results showed that application of organic manure could significantly reduce the content of chemically available Cd in soil. Pig manure was more effective than straw. Application of organic manure could accelerate the transformation of exchangeable Cd into WBO and OxMn. There were positive cornelations between the coutents of exchangeable Cd and WBO and those of chemically available Cd and Cd taken up by rice.
    20  FRACTAL PROPERTY OF SOIL PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION AND ITS APPLICATION
    Huang Guan-hua Zhan Wei-hua
    2002, 39(4):490-497. DOI: 10.11766/trxb200011110406
    [Abstract](3061) [HTML](0) [PDF 484.48 K](4244) [Cited by](110)
    Abstract:
    Numerous studies have shown that soil particle size distribution (PSD),mass distribution,surface distribution and pore size distribution are fractals,which are generally described with fractal geometry.In this paper,the fractal properties of ten types of soils from loamy sand to clay were investigated with the method developed by Tyler and Wheatcraft (1992) un the basis of accumulative mass distribution of soil particles.Sieving data sets of the above mentioned ten soils were used to calculate fractal dimension which ranged from 2.489 to 2.896,and relationship between frac;tal dimension of PSD and soil texture was analyzed.Meanwhile the fractal dimension of PSD was compared with the fitted fractal dimension calculated from the calibration of the power-law expression of the corresponding soil water retention function developed with Monger sponge,and the mathematical relationship between them was therefore established.Results indicated that the fractal dimension of PSD increased with clay content but decreased with sand content, and the fractal dimension of PSD was approximately the same as and in linear relationship with the fractal dimension of the power-law expression for the soil water retention function.This implies that the soil water retention properties can be predicted by the power-law function in combination with the mass based fractal dimension of PSD.

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