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引用本文:张仲胜,吕宪国,薛振山,刘晓辉.中国湿地土壤碳氮磷生态化学计量学特征研究[J].土壤学报,2016,53(5):1160-1169. DOI:10.11766/trxb201602220576
ZHANG Zhongsheng,LÜ Xianguo,XUE Zhenshan,LIU Xiaohui.Is There a Redfield-Type C:N:P Ratio in Chinese Wetland Soils?[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,2016,53(5):1160-1169. DOI:10.11766/trxb201602220576
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张仲胜, 吕宪国, 薛振山, 刘晓辉
明确区域及全球湿地土壤中是否存在类似“Redfield比值(Redfield ratio)”的碳氮磷(C:N:P)比例,是认识湿地生态系统中元素循环,构建湿地物质循环模型的基础。本文基于《中国沼泽志》中有详细土壤理化性质记录的119块沼泽湿地数据,利用数理统计方法,分析了区域尺度上湿地土壤中碳C:N:P生态化学计量学特征及分布格局,并探讨了其可能的影响因素。结果表明,中国湿地土壤中C:N、C:P和N:P(摩尔比)平均为18.22、245.22和13.60,高于中国及世界土壤中C:N、C:P和N:P的平均值,C:N:P比例平均值为245:13.6:1。碳、氮、磷三者之间并不具备显著的两两相关性,说明中国湿地土壤中不存在类似于“Redfield比值”的C:N:P比例。相比于N元素,湿地生态系统更多受到P供应的限制。不同湿地类型或不同盐度情况下湿地土壤中C:N、C:P和N:P存在显著性差异,而植被类型对土壤中C:N、C:P和N:P影响不大。相关性分析表明,海拔高度、温度(年平均气温、1月平均气温、7月平均气温、活动积温)及pH是决定湿地土壤中C:N、C:P和N:P的主要因素。考虑到海拔与C:P及N:P之间极显著的相关关系,海拔这一非地带性因子是决定湿地土壤C:N:P计量学特征的主要因素。
关键词:  湿地  土壤  C:N:P  生态化学计量学
Is There a Redfield-Type C:N:P Ratio in Chinese Wetland Soils?
ZHANG Zhongsheng, LÜ Xianguo, XUE Zhenshan, LIU Xiaohui
Key Laboratory of Wetland Ecology and Environment, Institute of Northeast Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
【Objective】How matter recycling matches ecosystem services is always one of the central concerns of the research on ecology, and C:N:P ecological stoichiometry has been an effective tool to link chemical processes on the molecular level with ecological processes in ecosystems. The knowledge about how carbon, N and P is distributed in wetland soils and whether there is a "Redfiled-type" C:N:P ratio in regional or global wetland soils is the basis for understanding fate of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus and modeling matter circulation in wetland ecosystems. Objectives of this study are to examine whether there is a consistent C:N:P ratio in wetland soils of China and to find its potential influencing factors. 【Method】Based on the data of carbon, nutrient contents, soil properties, vegetation, meteorology and C:N:P ratios of wetland soils of 119 marshes or wetlands published in the “Journal of Marshes of China”, ecological stoichiometric characteristics of C:N:P ratios on a regional scale and their potential affecting factors were analyzed with the mathematical statistics. 【Result】Results show that the average C, N and P content in the wetlands of China was 22.93%, 0.76% and 0.16%, respectively; the average C:N, C:P and N:P ratio (mole ratio) was 18.22, 245.22 and 13.60, respectively, all higher than their respective ones in the soils of the country and the globe; and the average C:N:P ratio was 245:13.6:1. The C:N, C:P and N:P ratio in organic soils was higher than their respective ones in mineral soils. No significant difference was found in soil C:N:P between meadow, peat moss and forest wetlands; However, significant differences were found between inland freshwater, inland saline and tidal wetlands, with the inland freshwater wetlands being the highest and the tidal wetlands the lowest in C:P and N:P ratios, but. no difference in C:N was between the two. Overall, C:N, C:P and N:P ratios were the highest in inland freshwater wetlands and the lowest in tidal wetlands. Pearson analysis shows no significant pairwise relationship was found between the three elements, which implies that there is no “Redfield”-type ratios in the wetland soils of China. Wetland ecosystems were more affected by P than the other soil nutrients. No significant difference in C:N ratio was found between climate zones, but a decreasing order of Tropical Zone > Temperate Zone > Plateau Temperate Zone > Warm Temperate Zone >Mid-subtropical Zone > Northern Subtropical Zone was, while C:P and N:P ratios differed significantly between climate zones, which followed an order of Plateau Temperate Zone > Temperate Zone > Mid-subtropical Zone > Tropical Zone > Warm Temperate Zone > Northern Subtropical Zone in C:P ratio and an order of Plateau Temperate Zone > Mid-subtropical Zone > Temperate Zone > Warm Temperate Zone > Tropical Zone > Northern Subtropical Zone in N:P ratio. Correlation analysis shows that altitude, temperatures (annual mean temperature, mean temperatures in January and July, and active accumulated temperature) and pH are the three main factors determining C:N:P ratios in the wetlands of China. 【Conclusion】In conclusion, C:N:P in the wetland soils of China are highly affected by soil types and climate conditions, and little by plant vegetation. Taking into account the extremely significant correlations of altitude with C:P and N:P, altitude is deemed to be the decisive factor of C:N:P ecological stoichiometry of wetland soils.
Key words:  Wetland  Soil  C:N:P  Ecological stoichiometry