秸秆与有机无机肥配施对潮土关键微生物及小麦产量的影响
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中国科学院南京土壤研究所

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国家自然科学基金项目(41977102)、中国科学院战略性先导科技专项任务(XDA24020104-2)和中国现代农业产业技术体系项目(CARS-03)共同资助


Effects of Combined Application of Straw and Organic-inorganic Fertilizers on Key Microorganisms and Wheat Yield in Fluvo-aquic Soil
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Institute of Soil Science,Chinese Academy of Sciences

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Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No.41977102), the “Strategic Priority Research Program” of the Chinese Academy of Sciences(No.XDA24020104-2)and the Modern Agriculture Research System of MOF and MARA, China (No.CARS-03)

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    摘要:

    秸秆与化肥和鸡粪配施改变了土壤微生物群落结构及微生物间的相互作用关系,但这种变化与小麦产量间的关系尚不清楚。本研究依托7年长期定位试验,选取5个施肥处理:不施化肥+秸秆离田(N0S0)、不施化肥+秸秆还田(N0S)、常规施化肥+秸秆离田(NS0)、常规施化肥+秸秆还田(NS)和施化肥+秸秆还田+鸡粪替代20%氮肥(NSM),研究了不同施肥方式对细菌-真菌共现网络中微生物组成的影响,以及关键微生物与小麦产量间的相关关系。结果表明,与N0S0处理相比,NS0、NS和NSM处理的小麦籽粒产量分别提升539.20%、611.56%和676.56%,而N0S处理无显著变化。细菌和真菌群落组成均可分成显著不同的3组,分别为N0S0+N0S、NS0以及NS+NSM,即微生物群落组成在是否施用化肥之间显著不同;相同施用化肥情况下,在是否有施用有机物料之间显著不同。将重要性从高到低排序,有效磷(AP)、电导率(EC)、微生物生物量氮(MBN)、土壤有机碳(SOC)、易氧化有机碳(ROC)和颗粒有机碳(POC)是导致不同处理细菌群落结构变化的主要土壤理化性质,EC、MBN、ROC、POC、AP和SOC是导致不同处理真菌群落结构变化的主要土壤理化性质。细菌-真菌共现网络中,两个关键模块(模块1和模块4)与小麦产量变化显著相关。NS+NSM处理提升了模块4中与小麦产量正相关的类诺卡氏菌属(Nocardioides)、纤维单胞菌属(Cellulomonas)、Pir4_lineage、金孢子菌属(Chrysosporium)、无茎真菌属(Acaulium)和裂壳菌属(Schizothecium)等有益菌的相对丰度,它们可降解纤维素和木质素、促进养分转化和循环或抑制病原菌生长;并显著降低了模块1中与小麦产量负相关的葡萄穗霉属(Stachybotrys)、无色穗孢属(Achroiostachys)和Fusicolla的相对丰度,它们为不利于土壤健康和作物生长的植物病原真菌。因此,化肥配施秸秆及化肥配施秸秆和鸡粪利于关键有益微生物增加及病原真菌减少,关键微生物的功能和相对丰度对小麦产量具有影响。

    Abstract:

    【Objective】The combined application of crop straw with chemical fertilizers and chicken manure can change soil microbial community structure and the interaction between microorganisms. However, whether there is a correlation between these changes and wheat yield remains unclear. 【Method】A 7-year field experiment was used as the research platform, and this included five management strategies: (1) N0S0: no fertilizer or crop straw returning, (2) N0S: crop straw returning, (3) NS0: traditional chemical fertilization, (4) NS: crop straw returning with chemical fertilizer, and (5) NSM: crop straw returning with chemical fertilizer and the nitrogen was substituted 20% by chicken manure. The effects of different management strategies on microbial community composition in bacterial-fungal co-occurrence networks and the correlation between key microorganisms and wheat yield were studied. 【Result】The results showed that compared with N0S0 treatment, the grain yield of wheat under NS0, NS and NSM treatments increased by 539.20%, 611.56% and 676.56%, respectively, while there was no significant change under N0S treatment. The bacterial and fungal community compositions were divided into three significantly different groups: N0S0 and N0S, NS0, and NS and NSM, respectively, indicating that the microbial community composition was significantly different with or without chemical fertilizer application. Under both chemical fertilizer applications, there was a significant difference in whether organic materials were applied. Ranked from high to low importance, we found that available phosphorus, electrical conductivity, microbial biomass nitrogen, soil organic carbon, readily oxidizable organic carbon, and particulate organic carbon were the main soil physicochemical properties that caused the changes in bacterial community composition under different treatments. Also, electrical conductivity, microbial biomass nitrogen, readily oxidizable organic carbon, particulate organic carbon, available phosphorus, and soil organic carbon were the main soil physicochemical properties that caused the changes in fungal community composition under different treatments. In the bacterial-fungal co-occurrence network, two key modules (module 1 and module 4) were significantly correlated with wheat yield changes. NS+NSM treatments increased the relative abundance of beneficial microorganisms in module 4, including Nocardioides, Cellulomonas, Pir4_lineage, Chrysosporium, Acaulium, and Schizothecium, which were positively correlated with wheat yield. These beneficial microorganisms could degrade cellulose and lignin, promote nutrient conversion and recycling, or inhibit the growth of the potential pathogen. NS+NSM treatments also significantly reduced the relative abundance of plant pathogenic fungi in module 1, including Stachybotrys, Achroiostachys, and Fusicolla, which were negatively correlated with wheat yield and were detrimental to soil health and crop growth. 【Conclusion】Therefore, crop straw returning with chemical fertilizer and crop straw returning with chemical fertilizer and chicken manure were beneficial to the increase of key beneficial microorganisms and the decrease of pathogenic fungi. The function and the relative abundance of key microorganisms had effects on wheat yield.

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郭 伟,周云鹏,陈美淇,李丹丹,王青霞,周谈坛,赵炳梓.秸秆与有机无机肥配施对潮土关键微生物及小麦产量的影响[J].土壤学报,DOI:10.11766/trxb202303010086,[待发表]
GUO Wei, ZHOU Yunpeng, CHEN Meiqi, LI Dandan, WANG Qingxia, ZHOU Tantan, ZHAO Bingzi. Effects of Combined Application of Straw and Organic-inorganic Fertilizers on Key Microorganisms and Wheat Yield in Fluvo-aquic Soil[J]. Acta Pedologica Sinica, DOI:10.11766/trxb202303010086,[In Press]

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  • 收稿日期:2023-03-01
  • 最后修改日期:2023-07-14
  • 录用日期:2023-10-09
  • 在线发布日期: 2023-10-20
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